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Splash Screen

Splash Screen

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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. As the United States began to take a stronger role in world affairs, the new nation faced challenges. Section 1-Guide to Reading 1 • In the early 1800s, the livelihoods of many Americans depended on foreign trade, but a war between Great Britain and France threatened U.S. shipping and trade. (page 339) • President James Madison struggled with trade issues with France and Britain, as well as with tensions between Native Americans and white settlers. (page 341)

  3. I. Freedom of the Seas (pages 339–340) A. Sailing in foreign seas was dangerous. Ships in the Mediterranean had to be aware of pirates from Tripoli and other Barbary Coast states of North Africa. These pirates raided ships and demanded tribute, or protection money, from European governments to let ships pass. Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 2

  4. I. Freedom of the Seas (pages 339–340) B. In 1804, pirates seized a U.S. ship and had it towed to Tripoli Harbor, where they threw the captain and crew in jail. Stephen Decatur, a U.S. Navy captain, burned the captured ship to prevent pirates from using it. Tripoli agreed to stop demanding tribute, but the United States had to pay a ransom to free the ship’s crew. Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 3

  5. I. Freedom of the Seas (pages 339–340) C. Foreign trade depended on sea travel. Between 1803 and 1805 U.S. trade prospered because the United States had neutral rights—the right to sail the seas and not take sides—in the war between Britain and France. In 1805 Britain and France began a new policy of seizing and searching ships. Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 4

  6. I. Freedom of the Seas (pages 339–340) D. The British needed soldiers in its Royal Navy because many were deserting. British naval patrols stopped American ships and searched for any soldiers they thought might be British deserters. The British would force sailors on the American ships to serve in the British navy in a practice called impressment. Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 5

  7. I. Freedom of the Seas (pages 339–340) E. In 1807 the British intercepted an American ship off the coast of Virginia and demanded to search it. When the captain of the U.S. ship refused, the British opened fire. Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 6 F. The United States passed an embargo, which prohibits trade with another country, on Britain, but it was ineffective. G. In 1808, James Madison was elected president.

  8. I. Freedom of the Seas (pages 339–340) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 7

  9. II. War Fever (pages 341–345) A. In 1810 Napoleon Bonaparte promised to end France’s trade restrictions with the United States, and the United States resumed trade with the French. However, the French continued to seize American ships. Americans were unsure of who their enemy was—the British or the French. Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 9 B.Ohio became a state in 1803, and more farmers began settling in the Ohio Valley on land that had been guaranteed to the Native Americans.

  10. II. War Fever (pages 341–345) Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 10

  11. II. War Fever (pages 341–345) C.Tecumseh, a powerful Shawnee chief, built a confederacy among Native American nations in the Northwest to halt the white movement onto Native American lands. Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 11 D.The Prophet was Tecumseh’s brother, Tenskwatawa. He urged Native Americans to return to the customs of their ancestors. He attracted a huge following and set up a village in northern Indiana called Prophetstown.

  12. II. War Fever (pages 341–345) E.William Henry Harrison, the governor of Indiana territory, was alarmed by the Shawnee brothers. He wrote a letter to Tecumseh, telling him the United States had many more warriors than did the Native Americans. Tecumseh went in person to speak to the white people. Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 12

  13. II. War Fever (pages 341–345) F. Harrison attacked Prophetstown in 1811 in the Battle of Tippecanoe. Many Native Americans, including Tecumseh, fled to Canada. This flight to Canada led Americans to believe the British were supporting Native Americans. Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 13

  14. II. War Fever (pages 341–345) G. A group of young Republicans known as the War Hawks pressured the president to declare war on Britain. They wanted revenge for British actions against Americans, and they wanted to expand United States power. Their nationalism, or loyalty to their country, appealed to many Americans. Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 14

  15. II. War Fever (pages 341–345) H.Henry Clay and John Calhoun led the War Hawks. Section 1-Daily Lesson Notes 15 I. By the spring of 1812 Madison had decided that war with Britain was inevitable. He had not received word of Britain’s decision to end searches and seizures of American ships.

  16. End of Section 1

  17. Beginning in 1812, the United States went to war with Britain. Fighting took place in the United States, in Canada, and at sea. Section 2-Guide to Reading 1 • In 1812 the United States was at war with Britain and was unprepared from the onset. (page 354) • Even though the last battle of the war, the Battle of New Orleans, took place two weeks after the war had officially ended, the American victory there instilled a strong sense of national pride. (page 356)

  18. I. War Begins (pages 354–355) A. The United States did not have a large army at the beginning of the War of 1812. Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 2 B. In July 1812 General William Hull led troops from Detroit toward Canada and encountered Tecumseh and his warriors. Hull surrendered Detroit.

  19. I. War Begins (pages 354–355) C.Oliver Hazard Perry, commander of the Lake Erie naval forces assembled a fleet to seize the lake from the British. In a bloody battle, Perry’s ships defeated the British naval force. Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 3 D. Tecumseh was killed in the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813. E. By the end of 1813 the Americans had won some battles on land and at sea.

  20. I. War Begins (pages 354–355) Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 4 Click the map to view a dynamic version.

  21. I. War Begins (pages 354–355) F. Americans had three of the fastest frigates, or warships, afloat that successfully destroyed British ships. American privateers, armed private ships, also captured numerous British vessels. Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 5 G.Andrew Jackson, a Tennessee planter, led an attack against the Creek in March 1814. Defeat at The Battle of Horseshoe Bend forced the Creek to give up their lands to the United States.

  22. II. The British Offensive (pages 356–359) A. In August 1814 the British sailed into Chesapeake Bay and overpowered American troops outside Washington, D.C. The British marched into the city and burned the Capitol and the White House. Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 7 B. The British left Washington, D.C., and sailed to Baltimore. American troops were waiting in Baltimore when the British attacked. Francis Scott Key wrote a song about the battle that is now the national anthem, “The Star-Spangled Banner.”

  23. II. The British Offensive (pages 356–359) C. British troops entered New York State from Canada to capture Plattsburgh, a key city on the shore of Lake Champlain. An American naval force on Lake Champlain defeated the British, and they retreated to Canada. The British decided that to continue fighting would cost them too much with little to gain. Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 8 D. On December 24, 1814, the United States and Britain signed a peace agreement called the Treaty of Ghent.

  24. II. The British Offensive (pages 356–359) E. Before news of the treaty became known, another battle broke out in New Orleans. The Americans, led by Andrew Jackson, won the battle. Section 2-Daily Lesson Notes 9 F. New England Federalists gathered at the Hartford Convention in December 1814 and discussed secession. Word arrived about Jackson’s victory in New Orleans and the peace treaty. The Federalist party appeared unpatriotic.

  25. End of Section 2

  26. In Section 2, you learned about the War of 1812. In this section you will read about the United States’s relations with foreign countries in the postwar period. Section 3-Guide to Reading 1 • After the War of 1812, a new spirit of nationalism took hold in American society. (page 363) • In 1823 the United States proclaimed its dominant role in the Americas with the Monroe Doctrine. (page 366)

  27. I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) A. The Era of Good Feelings was the time after the War of 1812 when a sense of national unity was forged in America. Section 3-Daily Lesson Notes 2 B. President James Monroe represented a united America free of political strife. He toured the nation, and everywhere he went people celebrated his visit.

  28. I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) C.John Quincy Adams, Monroe’s secretary of state, worked to resolve disputes with the British because America needed good relations with the European power. Section 3-Daily Lesson Notes 3 D. The Rush-Bagot Treaty sets limits on the number of naval vessels Britain and the United States could have on the Great Lakes. The treaty also provided for disarmament, the removal of weapons, along the border between the United States and British Canada.

  29. I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) E. The United States and Britain worked together to set the American-Canadian boundary farther west. In a second agreement with Britain, Americans set the boundary of the Louisiana Territory between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. The countries agreed to a demilitarized border—a border without armed forces. Section 3-Daily Lesson Notes 4

  30. I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) F. Americans also gained the right to settle in Oregon Country, a vast area extending from California to Alaska. Section 3-Daily Lesson Notes 5 G. In the early 1800s, Spain, Britain, Russia, and the United States claimed Oregon Country. Spain and Russia eventually gave up their claims, which left Britain and the United States with claims. Both countries based their claims on explorations of fur trappers and traders. American presence in Oregon Country grew; and in the Treaty of 1846, Britain and the United States divided Oregon.

  31. I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) H. The United States and Spain worked to settle disputes over borders in Florida. In 1818 General Andrew Jackson went beyond his instructions and invaded Spanish East Florida, seizing control of two Spanish forts. Section 3-Daily Lesson Notes 6 I. The Spanish minister to the United States protested Jackson’s actions. Secretary of War John Calhoun said that Jackson should be court-martialed—tried by a military court—but Secretary of State John Quincy Adams disagreed.

  32. I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) J. The raid demonstrated the strength of the U.S. military. In the Adams-Onís Treaty, Spain gave East Florida to the United States and abandoned all claims to West Florida. Section 3-Daily Lesson Notes 7 K. Spanish officials tried to keep Americans out of western territories held by Spain, but they found this to be increasingly difficult.

  33. I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) L.Mexico won its freedom from Spain in 1821 and gained control of the western territories. The Mexican government welcomed American traders and settlers into its lands, but later questioned this policy. Section 3-Daily Lesson Notes 8

  34. I. Relations with European Powers (pages 363–365) M. The United States tried to buy territory from Mexico, but Mexico refused. American settlers in Texas revolted, and Texas gained its independence in 1836 and statehood in 1845. These events angered Mexico. Mexico and the United States went to war the following year, and Mexico was defeated. The two countries signed a peace treaty in 1848, giving the United States what is today California, Arizona, and New Mexico, as well as other western states. Section 3-Daily Lesson Notes 9

  35. II. The United States and Latin America (pages 366–367) A. The United States supported Latin American colonies when they began their struggles for independence from Spain and Portugal. Section 3-Daily Lesson Notes 11 B.Miguel Hidalgo was a priest who led a rebellion against the Spanish government of Mexico. Although Hidalgo was executed, Mexico gained its independence in 1821 and control of northern lands.

  36. II. The United States and Latin America (pages 366–367) C.Simón Bolívar led a movement that won freedom for the present-day countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Bolivia, and Ecuador. Section 3-Daily Lesson Notes 12 D.José de San Martín achieved independence for Chile and Peru. E. Americans hoped the independence of Latin American colonies would increase trade between the United States and Latin America and help spread American ideals.

  37. II. The United States and Latin America (pages 366–367) F. France, Austria, Russia, and Prussia wanted to help Spain regain its American holdings. President Monroe declared that the Americas were no longer to be considered for colonization by European powers. Monroe warned that no European country should interfere in United States affairs. The president’s proclamation was later called the Monroe Doctrine. Section 3-Daily Lesson Notes 13

  38. End of Section 3

  39. Cause/Effect 1