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Chapter 21 – Sections 1 and 3 Changing Ways of Life and Education and Popular Culture. The Roaring 20’s and great depression. Unit 12. Changing Ways of Life and Education and Popular Culture.

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changing ways of life and education and popular culture
Changing Ways of Life and Education and Popular Culture
  • Main Idea – Americans experienced cultural conflicts as customs and values changed in the 1920s. The popular culture reflected the prosperity of the era, as mass media, movies, and spectator sports played important roles in the 1920s.
booming economy
Booming Economy
  • Wartime economy  Peacetime economy
  • Technology growth made life easier
    • Washing machine
    • Electric stove
    • Electric lighting
  • Buying on Credit  Spending money you don’t have.
what made the 20s roaring
What made the 20s roaring?
  • People became more carefree and adventurous.
  • Women held jobs outside the home and went to college
  • Flapper: carefree young women with short hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts.
  • Flagpole sitter…people actually sat on top of flagpoles for fun. Flagpole skaters…
  • Charles Lindbergh…first solo flight across Atlantic (Spirit of Saint Louis)
results of improved transportation
Results of Improved Transportation
  • Greater Mobility (easier to move around)
    • People moved from the suburbs and commuted to work in the cities
    • Created jobs in transportation industry
      • Road construction
      • Oil
      • Steel
      • Cars
      • Gas stations
  • Airplane-transports mail and eventually people
    • Charles Lindbergh
the prohibition experiment
The Prohibition Experiment
  • Background: 18th Amendment established an era of Prohibition – def. – manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages illegal
  • U.S. government failed to budget enough money to enforce the law
  • Speakeasies– def. – underground saloons and nightclubs that sold alcohol
  • Bootleggers– def. – people who manufactured or smuggled illegal liquor
  • SIG – Prohibition experiment failed
    • Rise in organized crime – ex: gangster Al Capone in Chicago
    • In 1933 – 21st Amendment repealed prohibition
science and religion clash
Science and Religion Clash
  • Fundamentalism – def. – belief in the literal interpretation of the bible
    • Led to conflict with some scientific ideas
    • Rejected the idea that man had evolved from apes = Darwin’s theory of evolution
science and religion clash1
Science and Religion Clash
  • The Scopes Trial(1925) – Teacher John T. Scopes violated TN law that banned teaching of evolution in school
    • Featured fight between defense lawyer Clarence Darrow and prosecution witness William Jennings Bryan
    • SIG - Highlighted the conflict between science and fundamentalism
sacco and vanzetti
Sacco and Vanzetti
  • Sacco and Vanzetti
    • Italian immigrants (and anarchists) who were charged and found guilty in the armed robbery and murder of two pay-clerks
    • Eyewitnesses had only been able to say that the guilty parties looked Italian, Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested
    • Executed via Electrocution
mass media shape culture
Mass Media Shape Culture
  • Newspapers
  • Magazines
  • Radio
  • Movies
  • more literate Americans = increased newspaper circulation
    • SIG – shaped cultural norms and sparked fads
  • mass-circulation to reach wide audiences
    • Focused on weekly news and culture – ex: Reader’s Digest, Time
  • The radio was the most powerful communications medium of the 1920s
    • Broadcast news, sports, music (Jazz), children’s programs
    • SIG – created a more national culture – different audiences around the country hearing the same programs
  • Movies offered viewers a way to escape their lives through romance and comedy
    • SIG – helped promote a national culture
  •  Development of movies—Silent movies!
    • Felix the Cat
    • The Big Parade
    • Mickey Mouse
sports heroes
Sports Heroes
  • Babe Ruth - a professional ball player that hit 60 homeruns in one season.
  • Jack Dempsey - a boxer defeated by Gene Tunney.
  • Gene Tunney - the boxer that defeated former champion Jack Dempsey.
  • Johnny Weissmuller - an American Olympic swimmer that won 5 gold medals and was an actor.
  • Bobby Jones - was the greatest amateur golfer of modern times.
  • Big Bill Tilden - first American to win men's singles at Wimbledon, England.
  • Red Grange - was a halfback at the University of Illinois from 1923 to 1925.
the twenties woman
The Twenties Woman
  • Background: 19th Amendment increased women’s rights by giving women the right to vote
  • Flappers – def. - young urban women who embraced new fashions and attitudes
    • Featured short bobbed haircuts, shorter dresses, make-up, smoking, drinking, talked openly about sex, dancing
  • 20 Slang
limiting immigration
Limiting Immigration
  • Anti-immigrant attitudes (nativism) had been growing since the 1880s due to increased immigration, especially from Southern and Eastern Europe
    • Increased immigration led to more competition for industrial jobs in cities
limiting immigration1
Limiting Immigration
  • Return of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
    • 1920s KKK devoted to hatred of immigrants, blacks, Catholics, Jews,
    • 4.5 million male members by mid-1920s
    • Declined by the end of the decade due to criminal activity
limiting immigration2
Limiting Immigration
  • The Quota System – established the maximum number of people who could enter the U.S. from each foreign country
    • Designed to limit number of Southern and Eastern European immigrants
great migration
Great Migration
  • Jobs for African Americans in the South were Scarce and low paying
  • African Americans faced discrimination and violence in the South
  • African Americans moved to northern cities in search of jobs
  • African Americans also faced discrimination and violence in the North



harlem renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
  • African American artists, writers, and musicians based in Harlem revealing the freshness and variety of African American culture.
  • The popularity of these artists spread to the rest of society.
  • Literature: Langston Hughes-poet who combined the experiences of African and American cultural roots.
  • Art: Jacob Lawrence-painter who chronicled the Great Migration North through art.
  • Music: Duke Ellington and Lewis Armstrong-Jazz composers; Bessie Smith-Bluessinger
culture of the 20s and 30s
Culture of the 20s and 30s
  • Literature:
    • F. Scott Fitzgerald-novelist who wrote about the jazz age
      • The Great Gatsby
    • John Steinbeck-novelist who portrayed the strength of poor migrant workers in the 30s
      • The Grapes of Wrath
  • Art:
    • Georgia O’Keefe-artist known for urban scenes and later paintings of

the southwest and flowers

  • Music:
    • Aaron Copland and George Gershwin- wrote uniquely American music.
the nation s sick economy a new deal fights the depression
The Nation’s Sick Economy A New Deal Fights the Depression

Chapter 22 – Section 1

Chapter 23 – Section 1

the nation s sick economy a new deal fights the depression1
The Nation’s Sick Economy A New Deal Fights the Depression
  • Main Idea – As the prosperity of the 1920s ended, severe economic problems gripped the nation and led to the Great Depression. After becoming president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt used government programs as part of his New Deal to combat the Depression.
the business cycle
The Business Cycle
  • The economy naturally goes through times of recession, recovery, and prosperity.
  • The economy naturally goes through times of recession, recovery, and prosperity.
economic troubles on the horizon
Economic Troubles on the Horizon
  • Background: The prosperity of the 1920s was largely based on the use of credit – def. – consumers agreed to buy now and pay later for purchases
    • Installment buying
    • Buying on margin
    • Over speculation
installment buying
Installment buying
  • Installment buying- def. - form of credit with monthly payments with interest
buying on margin
Buying on margin
  • def. – buying too many stocks hoping to sell at a higher price in a short period of time, regardless of risk involved
over speculation
Over Speculation
  • Over Speculation: paying only a small percentage of a stock’s price as a down payment and borrowing the rest to make a stock purchase
causes of the great depression
Causes of the Great Depression
  • Black Tuesday
  • Hawley-Smoot Act
black tuesday
Black Tuesday
  • October 29, 1929– the stock market crashed with 16.4 million shares of stock sold in one day, causing prices to collapse
    • Prices of stocks fell  speculators left with huge debts that couldn’t be repaid to banks banks failed people lost their savings
banks failing
Banks Failing
  • The Federal Reserve failed to prevent widespread collapse of the nation’s banking system as banks continued to fail through the early 1930s
hawley smoot act
Hawley-Smoot Act
  • Hawley-Smoot Act (1930) - High protective tariff resulted in retaliatory tariffs in other countries, which strangled international trade
financial collapse
Financial Collapse
  • Great Depression
  • “Hoovervilles”
  • Farm foreclosures
unemployment graph
Unemployment Graph

When was unemployment the highest?

Answer: 1933

great depression
Great Depression
  • Great Depression– def. – period from 1929 to 1940 in which the economy plummeted and unemployment skyrocketed, causing widespread hardship
    • Business failures – 90,000 businesses went bankrupt
    • Collapse of the financial system - over 11,000 bank closings
    • Unemployment – 25% of American workers were unemployed by 1932
    • “Hoovervilles”– def. - shacks and shantytowns of homeless people, named for President Hoover
  • President Hoover thought that private companies and volunteers should take care of the economy
    • Did not act in the beginning to try to counter act the depression

President Hoover

farm foreclosures
Farm Foreclosures
  • Farm Foreclosures– farmers lost their homes and lands and were forced to migrate across the country looking for work
    • Dust Bowl
    • “Okies”
dust bowl
Dust Bowl
  • Parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado that were hardest hit by draught and dust storms
dust bowl1
Dust Bowl
  • Lasted 8 years
  • Caused by poor agricultural practices and years of sustained drought
  • The winds of the Great Plains stirred up the dust from the fields and blew it across the plains
    • In 1932, 14 dust storms were recorded on the Plains.
    • In 1933, there were 38 storms.
    • By 1934, it was estimated that 100 million acres of farmland had lost all or most of the topsoil to the winds.
dust bowl2
Dust Bowl
  • The Dust Bowl got its name after Black Sunday, April 14, 1935.
    • The cloud that appeared on the horizon that Sunday was the worst. Winds were clocked at 60 mph. Then it hit.
  • The simplest acts of life — breathing, eating a meal, taking a walk — were no longer simple.
  • Children wore dust masks to and from school, women hung wet sheets over windows in a futile attempt to stop the dirt, farmers watched helplessly as their crops blew away.
  • Life during the Dust Bowl
okies and arkies
Okies and Arkies
  • Okies:those who moved west to California from Oklahoma
  • Arkies: those who moved west to California from Arkansas
  • These migrant workers/families lived in tents or out of their automobiles
understanding images
Understanding Images
  • What feelings does this image give you?
  • What do you think to woman is feeling? How about the kids?
  • Describe the way they are dressed?
  • Migrant Stories
  • Migrant Mother Photo Video Clip
steinbeck and the dust bowl
Steinbeck and the Dust Bowl
  • As John Steinbeck wrote in his 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath:
    • "And then the dispossessed were drawn west- from Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico; from Nevada and Arkansas, families, tribes, dusted out, tractored out. Car-loads, caravans, homeless and hungry; twenty thousand and fifty thousand and a hundred thousand and two hundred thousand. They streamed over the mountains, hungry and restless - restless as ants, scurrying to find work to do - to lift, to push, to pull, to pick, to cut - anything, any burden to bear, for food. The kids are hungry. We got no place to live. Like ants scurrying for work, for food, and most of all for land." 
americans get a new deal
Americans Get a New Deal
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt(FDR) won the presidential election of 1932
    • Inaugural address – rallied a frightened nation
      • “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”
    • Fireside Chats – FDR’s radio addresses aimed at restoring American confidence
new deal
New Deal
  • Relief
  • Recovery
  • Reform
  • Relief: measures that provided direct payment to people for immediate help
    • CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps)
    • TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)
    • WPA (Works Progress Administration)
  • Civilian Conservation Corps – provided jobs for young single males on conservation projects
  • Tennessee Valley Authority – provided jobs building dams to bring running water and electricity to poor regions in the South
  • Works Progress Administration – created as many jobs as quickly as possible in construction of airports, highways, and public buildings as well as professions such as art, music, and theater
  • Recovery:programs designed to bring the nation out of the Depression over time
    • AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Act)
    • NRA (National Recovery Administration)
aaa and nra
  • AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Act) – aided farmers by regulating crop production so prices would rise
  • NRA (National Recovery Administration) – reformed banking practices and established fair codes of competition for businesses
  • FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)
  • Wagner Act
  • SSA (Social Security Act)
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation – protected bank deposits up to $5,000
  • What does it protect up to today?
wagner act
Wagner Act
  • – defined unfair labor practices and established the National Labor Relations Board to settle disputes between employers and employees
  • Social Security Act – provided a pension for retired workers and their spouses and helped people with disabilities
interpreting cartoons
Who are they main figures in the cartoon?

What are they pouring down the pump?

What is occurring as it is being pumped into the economy?

Interpreting Cartoons
significance of the new deal
Significance of the New Deal
  • The New Deal changed the role of government to a more active participant in solving problems
    • Public believed in the responsibility of the federal government to:
      • deliver public services
      • intervene in the economy
      • act in ways to promote the general welfare