Lecture Notes Introduction to Translation Dr. Amira Kashgary Semester 1 October 2008
Translation Dr. Amira Kashgary firstname.lastname@example.org King Abdulaziz University Department of English September 2008
What is Translation? As a subject, translation is defined as all the processes and methods used to convey meaning of the source language into the target language by means of : * The verb “translate” has been equated with synonyms such as “reader”, “rephrase”, “transmit”, “re express” “replace”.
What is Translation? We "render", "reproduce", "convey", and "transfer" For example: Write يكتب حاسوب Computer كمبيوتر
What is Translation? According to New mark (1981) translation is an attempt to replace a message or a statement in one language by the same message or statement in another language. For Catford (1965) translation is “the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL)’ (20). Nida (1964) defines translation in terms of the receptor’s understanding of the translated text, in other words, the intelligibility of the TL text. Accordingly, translation is “ reproducing in the receptor’s language the closest equivalent of the message of the SL, first in terms of meaning and then in terms of style”
What is Translation? What all definitions agree on are the following: Translation involves determining two extremes at the same time; the SL demands and the TL demands. Translation involves thinking and rethinking, expressing and re-expressing. Translation involves “equivalence” in respect of different levels of presentation (equivalent in respect of context, of semantics, of grammar, of lexis, etc.) and at different ranks (Word-for-sentence) and in different degrees (fully or partially equivalent)
What do we translate? We translate nothing but "MEANING".
What is Meaning? It is a complicated network of language components It is the product of different elements of language. Taken together occurring in a certain type of texts and contexts, and directed to a certain kind of readership.
What do we translate? We are always interested in how these elements combine, produce, influence, reflect and crystallize meaning.
How do we translate? Making use of two concepts Processes of Translation Methods of Translation Transfer Analysis Restructuring
Processes of Translation It describes how we proceed at translating something in practice, in other words, it is the STAGES of translating
Processes of Translation Since translation is a communicative process, it has to deal with the following processes: Analysis (Comprehension) Transfer Restructuring (Rearrangement or rewriting)
What do we translate? The process of Transfer , or what linguists call "Transfer Strategy" can be summarized in the following steps:
What do we translate? القراءة المتأنية للنص لمعرفة الفكرة العامة حفظ الفكرة العامة في الذهنوتقسيم النص الى مكونات فقراتو جمل (أي المعاني التفصيلية) ترجمة المعاني الموجودة في النص المصدر الى معاني في النص الهدف في ضوء المعايير والثقافة كتابة المعنى الواضح في ذهن المترجم باللغة الهدف وبهذا يكون لديه نص مساوي في معناه للنص الأصلي وهذه المرحلة تتعلق بأسلوب النصوهي إضفاء صيغة اللغة الهدف على النص المترجم(إعادة التركيب ضمن قوانين التركيب في اللغةالهدف) • SL 1 • SL 2 • Rethink • TL 1 • TL 2
Translation: Process vs. Product We have to distinguish between Translating: the process which refers to the activity rather than the tangible object, and Translation: the product of the process of translating, i.e. the translated text. The word translation can also refer to the abstract concept which encompasses both the process of translating and the product of that process.
Translation: Process vs. Product In order to arrive at a comprehensive and useful understanding of the process of translating we need to draw on the resources of linguistics, particularly, psycholinguistics and socio linguistics. The first of these examines the process in the mind of the translator, the second places the source language text (SLT) and the target language text (TLT) in their cultural context.
The Translation Process(Bell, 1991:21) Memory SLT Analysis Semantic Representation TLT Synthesis
Translation Process The SLT is transformed into a TLT by means of process which take place within memory: The analysis of the language specific text (the SLT) into a universal (non-language specific) semantic representation. The synthesis of that semantic representation into a second language specific text (the TLT).
Translation Process مثال على أهمية المرحلة الأخيرة في الترجمة وهي الصياغة الأسلوبية التي تضفي على النص بريقه وروحه: In order to bring the Egyptian banking sector in line with international banking norms, a new law 37 was introduced in June 1992. لكي يتماشى القطاع المصرفي المصري مع الأعراف البنكية الدولية تم اصدار قانون جديد ألا وهو 37 في يونيو 1992. في يونيو عام 1992 صدر قانون مصرفي جديد رقم 37 ليتماشى مع القطاع المصرفي مع الأعراف البنكية الدولية.
Translation Process When dinner was over, the senator made a speech. A speech was made by the senator after dinner. The senator made a post-prandial oration. بعد أن انتهى العشاء، ألقى المسؤول كلمة. ألقى المسؤول خطابا بعد العشاء. ألقى السيد خطابا طنانا رنانا بعد العشاء.
Methods of Translation Methods of Translation literal vs. free semantic vs. communicative formal vs. dynamic pragmatic vs. non-pragmatic creative vs. non-pragmatic
Methods of Translation Monolingual communication (Bell, 1991 : 18) Code Channel Channel SENDER Signal Receiver Content
Bilingual communication (Bell, 1991 : 19) Code 1 Channel Channel SENDER Signal 1 Translator Content 1 Code 2 RECEIVER Signal 2 Content 2
Translation: Process vs. Product Translator receives signal 1 containing message “ recognizes code 1 “ decodes signal 1 “ retrieves message “ comprehends message “ selects code 2 “ encodes message by means of code 2 “ selects channel “ transmits signal 2 containing message
Translation: Process vs. Product There are crucial difference between communication and translation as follows: There are two codes, two signals and consequently two sets of content provided that there is no 100 percent equivalence between languages
What are the tools of a Translator? Mono-lingual dictionaries (English) Webster’s (unabridged) dictionary The Oxford English dictionary Encyclopedic World dictionary Mono-lingual (Arabic) Al Munjid Al Waseet Bilingual dictionaries English / Arabic Al Mawrid Al Nafees Arabic / English The HansWehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic
What are the tools of a Translator? Dictionaries of English usage Dictionary of English usage Thesaurus Dictionary of slang terms Dictionaries of Idioms Dictionaries of proverbs
What are the tools of a Translator? Specialized Dictionaries Encyclopedia (general) Encyclopedia (specialized) Grammar Books Computers
Assignments Assignment # 1 Make a list of Arabic words which you find difficult to translate into English. Organize your list according to domains. For example, religion, food, social customs, idiomatic expressions, and so on