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Lecture Notes

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  1. Lecture Notes Chapter 1 Invitation to Critical Thinking Chapter 1

  2. Overview • What is critical thinking? • Root words for critical thinking • What does a critical thinker do? • Benefits of critical thinking • Aspects to critical thinking • Resolving obstacles to critical thinking Invitation to Critical Thinking Chapter 1

  3. Invitation to Critical Thinking Chapter 1

  4. What is critical thinking? • Critical thinking • A set of conceptual tools used to make decisions • Intellectual skills and strategies • Reason-able process • A mental ability • Disciplined intelligence • Problem solving Invitation to Critical Thinking Chapter 1

  5. Root words for critical thinking • krinein <Greek • Means decision-making • kritikos <Greek: krinein • Means discernment or the ability to judge • critical • criticism • critic • critique • Critical thinking is concerned with decision-making and the skills needed to make good decisions. Invitation to Critical Thinking Chapter 1

  6. A critical thinker looks more deeply into sources of our information assumptions underlying our beliefs determines what is at issue uses discipline uses creativity What does a critical thinker do? Invitation to Critical Thinking Chapter 1

  7. A critical thinker pursues truth employs intellectual virtues patience tenacity humility courage tolerance respect What does a critical thinker do? Invitation to Critical Thinking Chapter 1

  8. Benefits of critical thinking Critical thinking empowers and improves chances of success • in a career • as a consumer • in social roles in our community • personally, essential to personal autonomy • socially, essential to democratic system Invitation to Critical Thinking Chapter 1

  9. Aspects of critical thinking • Issues • factual • interpretive • evaluative • mere verbal dispute • Claims • truth-statement with adequate support • assumption: claim without support • hidden assumptions undermine reliability of reasoning Invitation to Critical Thinking Chapter 1

  10. Resolving obstacles to critical thinking Obstacle—relativism or subjectivism • Remedy—patience and tenacity in pursuit of the truth Obstacle—egocentrism and ethnocentricity • Remedy— intellectual humility Obstacle—intimidation by authority • Remedy—intellectual independence Obstacle—conformism • Remedy—intellectual courage Obstacle—unexamined and inferential assumptions, and presuppositions • Remedy—examination of assumptions Invitation to Critical Thinking Chapter 1