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Ancient Egyptians

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  1. Ancient Egyptians By: Robin, Bridgette, Arya, and Carter

  2. Introduction • Birthplace of 1 of the world’s 1st civilizations • Arouse 5,000 years ago • Ruled from 3,000 B.C.- 30 A.D. • Advanced in arithmetic, had a 365 day calendar, and established the 1st national government

  3. Geography • Developed along the Nile River Valley • Divided into upper and lower Egypt • Upper: South • Lower: North • Area around Nile & current Israel

  4. Food, clothing, and shelter • Food • Bread major part of diet • Beer was a popular beverage • Other foods • Vegetables, fruit, cheese, milk, butter, and duck and goose meat • Food of the rich • Other meat (beef, gazelle, and antelope) • Ate with fingers

  5. Medicine •  only cure is to keep clean and stay away from illnesses • Herbs • opium, cannabis, myrrh, frankincense, fennel, cassia, senna, thyme, henna, juniper, aloe, linseed and castor oil • Garlic found in tombs and burial sites • Clothing • Jewelry • Necklaces, bracelets, and rings • Cosmetics • red lip powder • dyed hair

  6. painted fingernail • outlined their eyes • Men wore just as much make up as women • Hair styling • Matted and tangled hair • Royalty were bald and wore wigs and large crowns • Clothing • Wore light clothes due to heat • Cloth made from plant fibers • Royalty- silk and feathers

  7. Houses • Built out of bricks and dried mud • City- narrow buildings w/ 3+ floors • Poor Egyptian • Small huts • 1-3 rooms • Typical Egyptian • 2-3 story house • Several rooms • Wealthy Egyptian • Up to 70 rooms • Large estates w/ pools, orchards, gardens, etc. • Furniture • Stools, chairs, oil lamps, beds, and chests

  8. Family life • Marriage • Civil marriage • Had marriage contracts • Main point was to get money and property • Family Life • Head of family- father • If father died oldest son took over • Women had many rights • could own and inherit property, buy and sell goods, and make a will. • Wife could get divorced

  9. Leisure and Travel • Transportation • boats or ships • handy because of location along the Nile made boats that were shaped like a canoe • for the shallower parts of the Nile • Leisure time • Played mostly board games and sports • Wealthy- bidding and betting games

  10. Education and Writing • Writing • Hieroglyphics • form of writing where picture symbols are used instead of words • are usually used to refer to Ancient Egyptians. • borrowed the idea from Mesopotamia • Egyptian hieroglyphics generally included about 800 symbols. • Papyrus • A type of paper • 1st use around 4000 B.C. • very important • helped transform Egyptian society

  11. Education and Writing continued • Schooling • Not many boys/girls went to school • Mostly rich people to become scribes • if they didn’t want to become scribes • be an apprentice and learn from people that did their future job

  12. Potters and Farming • Potters • Hired by royal family • Pottery • Important product • Used to cook, store, and serve food • Farming • Workers • Got crops as pay

  13. Crops • Main- wheat and barely • Beans, onions, figs, lettuce, dates, grapes, melons, and cucumbers • Animals • Raised- beef cattle, goats, ducks, sheep, geese, donkeys, and even bees

  14. The Arts • Music • God of Music- Thoth • Sang religious songs • Invented Ney (flute) and Oudh (like a guitar) • Art • Told stories • Architectural features

  15. Festivals • Large feasts • Celebrated gods

  16. Social classes and slavery • Social Classes • Different families, different expectations • Ruling elite at top • Farm laborers at bottom • Slavery • Slaves • Worked all day and all night • Got little or no pay • Built pyramids and worked on farms

  17. Trade

  18. Weapons and Hunting • Weapons • didn’t have very many • Made out of metal and wood • threw sticks at birds in hopes that it hit them right • threw spears and shot arrows • nets used for capturing fish and some types of birds

  19. Mummies and Cats • Mummies • Preserved dead • Believed in an “afterlife” • Cats • Known as Miw • Kept down Vermis Bast

  20. Pyramids and the Great Sphinx • Pyramids • Built from 2650- 1800 B.C. by slaves • Tombs for pharaohs • Built entirely from stone • Giza Pyramids • Pyramid of the pharaoh Khufu- largest of 3 Great Pyramids • Took 20+ years to build • Built out of limestone

  21. The Sphinx • Has lion’s head and man’s body • Appears to be guarding pyramid of Khufu

  22. The Rosetta Stone and Re • Rosetta Stone • Tablet w/ hieroglyphics • Key to translating language of ancient Egypt • Re • All powerful god

  23. Eye of Horus and the Valley of the Kings • Valley of Kings • Rocky gorge that was a cemetery for kings • Ramesses, Menkeptah, Seti, Tuthnosis, etc. • Eye of Horus • Represented with 6 parts corresponding to the six senses. • senses are in the order of their importance.