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Ancient Egyptians. By: Robin, Bridgette, Arya, and Carter. Introduction. Birthplace of 1 of the world’s 1st civilizations Arouse 5,000 years ago Ruled from 3,000 B.C.- 30 A.D. Advanced in arithmetic, had a 365 day calendar, and established the 1st national government. Geography.

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ancient egyptians

Ancient Egyptians

By: Robin, Bridgette, Arya, and Carter

  • Birthplace of 1 of the world’s 1st civilizations
  • Arouse 5,000 years ago
  • Ruled from 3,000 B.C.- 30 A.D.
  • Advanced in arithmetic, had a 365 day calendar, and established the 1st national government
  • Developed along the Nile River Valley
  • Divided into upper and lower Egypt
    • Upper: South
    • Lower: North
  • Area around Nile & current Israel
food clothing and shelter
Food, clothing, and shelter
  • Food
    • Bread major part of diet
    • Beer was a popular beverage
    • Other foods
      • Vegetables, fruit, cheese, milk, butter, and duck and goose meat
    • Food of the rich
      • Other meat (beef, gazelle, and antelope)
    • Ate with fingers
    •  only cure is to keep clean and stay away from illnesses
    • Herbs
      • opium, cannabis, myrrh, frankincense, fennel, cassia, senna, thyme, henna, juniper, aloe, linseed and castor oil
      • Garlic found in tombs and burial sites
  • Clothing
    • Jewelry
      • Necklaces, bracelets, and rings
  • Cosmetics
    • red lip powder
    • dyed hair
painted fingernail
    • outlined their eyes
    • Men wore just as much make up as women
  • Hair styling
    • Matted and tangled hair
    • Royalty were bald and wore wigs and large crowns
  • Clothing
    • Wore light clothes due to heat
    • Cloth made from plant fibers
    • Royalty- silk and feathers
    • Built out of bricks and dried mud
    • City- narrow buildings w/ 3+ floors
    • Poor Egyptian
      • Small huts
      • 1-3 rooms
    • Typical Egyptian
      • 2-3 story house
      • Several rooms
    • Wealthy Egyptian
      • Up to 70 rooms
      • Large estates w/ pools, orchards, gardens, etc.
    • Furniture
      • Stools, chairs, oil lamps, beds, and chests
family life
Family life
  • Marriage
    • Civil marriage
    • Had marriage contracts
    • Main point was to get money and property
  • Family Life
    • Head of family- father
      • If father died oldest son took over
    • Women had many rights
      • could own and inherit property, buy and sell goods, and make a will.
      • Wife could get divorced
leisure and travel
Leisure and Travel
  • Transportation
    • boats or ships
      • handy because of location along the Nile

made boats that were shaped like a canoe

        • for the shallower parts of the Nile
  • Leisure time
    • Played mostly board games and sports
    • Wealthy- bidding and betting games
education and writing
Education and Writing
  • Writing
    • Hieroglyphics
      • form of writing where picture symbols are used instead of words
      • are usually used to refer to Ancient Egyptians.
      • borrowed the idea from Mesopotamia
      • Egyptian hieroglyphics generally included about 800 symbols.
    • Papyrus
      • A type of paper
      • 1st use around 4000 B.C.
      • very important
      • helped transform Egyptian society
education and writing continued
Education and Writing continued
  • Schooling
    • Not many boys/girls went to school
    • Mostly rich people to become scribes
      • if they didn’t want to become scribes
        • be an apprentice and learn from people that did their future job
potters and farming
Potters and Farming
  • Potters
    • Hired by royal family
    • Pottery
      • Important product
      • Used to cook, store, and serve food
  • Farming
    • Workers
      • Got crops as pay
    • Main- wheat and barely
    • Beans, onions, figs, lettuce, dates, grapes, melons, and cucumbers
  • Animals
    • Raised- beef cattle, goats, ducks, sheep, geese, donkeys, and even bees
the arts
The Arts
  • Music
    • God of Music- Thoth
    • Sang religious songs
    • Invented Ney (flute) and Oudh (like a guitar)
  • Art
    • Told stories
    • Architectural features
    • Large feasts
    • Celebrated gods
social classes and slavery
Social classes and slavery
  • Social Classes
    • Different families, different expectations
    • Ruling elite at top
    • Farm laborers at bottom
  • Slavery
    • Slaves
      • Worked all day and all night
      • Got little or no pay
      • Built pyramids and worked on farms
weapons and hunting
Weapons and Hunting
  • Weapons
    • didn’t have very many
    • Made out of metal and wood
    • threw sticks at birds in hopes that it hit them right
    • threw spears and shot arrows
    • nets used for capturing fish and some types of birds
mummies and cats
Mummies and Cats
  • Mummies
    • Preserved dead
    • Believed in an “afterlife”
  • Cats
    • Known as Miw
    • Kept down Vermis Bast
pyramids and the great sphinx
Pyramids and the Great Sphinx
  • Pyramids
    • Built from 2650- 1800 B.C. by slaves
    • Tombs for pharaohs
    • Built entirely from stone
    • Giza Pyramids
      • Pyramid of the pharaoh Khufu- largest of 3 Great Pyramids
      • Took 20+ years to build
      • Built out of limestone
The Sphinx
    • Has lion’s head and man’s body
    • Appears to be guarding pyramid of Khufu
the rosetta stone and re
The Rosetta Stone and Re
  • Rosetta Stone
    • Tablet w/ hieroglyphics
    • Key to translating language of ancient Egypt
  • Re
    • All powerful god
eye of horus and the valley of the kings
Eye of Horus and the Valley of the Kings
  • Valley of Kings
    • Rocky gorge that was a cemetery for kings
    • Ramesses, Menkeptah, Seti, Tuthnosis, etc.
  • Eye of Horus
    • Represented with 6 parts corresponding to the six senses.
    • senses are in the order of their importance.