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New Monarchs and Exploration

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New Monarchs and Exploration

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  1. New Monarchs and Exploration

  2. Characteristics of the New Monarchies • Guarantee law and order • Hereditary monarchy is the most legitimate form of public power. • Tolerated no resistance • Support of the urban middle class • Final decline of local power of feudal nobles • Centralized government • National Laws • National Taxes • National Church

  3. More Characteristics • Reduced power of clergy • Lack of “hereditary” rights for most • Reduced emphasis on “common law” • Law derived from statutes and constitutions instead of judicial decision • “What pleases the prince has the force of law”– Monarchs have the authority to make laws • Made the middle classes more powerful • Their wealth helps stabilize the economy • They demand political power

  4. Examples of New Monarchies England (Tudors) France Spain (Phillip II)

  5. The Divine Right of Kings • Rule by the will of God, not the will of the people, a parliament, or other nobility. • Any attempt to restrict the powers of a monarch is contrary to the will of God • A king cannot be removed due to “misrule” • Tradition goes back to St. Augustine: a monarch is appointed by God to protect the “City of Man” • Monarchs believed they were “God’s representatives on earth.”

  6. The Tudors

  7. Henry VIII • Annexed Wales in 1535 • Catholic property taken by Henry • Various Acts of Succession • 3rd Act (1543): puts Mary and Elizabeth in line behind Edward and any further children by Henry

  8. Sir Thomas More Humanist, Catholic Author of “Utopia” Convicted of Treason because he refused to support Henry’s divorce from Anne. Executed 1534

  9. Thomas Cranmer: “Unity without Uniformity” • Author of “10 Articles” – Main points of the new Church • Wrote the Book of Common Prayer • Executed as a heretic by Mary Tudor • She wanted to reconcile Church of England with Roman Catholicism Archbishop of Canterbury for Henry and Edward

  10. The Wives • Katharine of Aragon • Anne Boleyn • Jane Seymour • Anne of Cleves • Katharine Howard • Katharine Parr – outlived Henry

  11. Edward Tudor • 1537-1553 • King at 9 years old • England ruled by greedy advisors • Anglo-Scottish wars • Enclosure Movement began • Protestant reform • Act of Uniformity: 1549 • BCP is sole form of worship in England • Anti-Catholic notes

  12. Lady Jane Grey • Gr. Grand-daughter of Henry VII • Father in law is an advisor to Edward • Manipulates marriage to place his son and Jane on the throne • Ruled for 9 days in 1553 • Executed by Mary Tudor

  13. Mary Tudor • Catholic, crushed Protestant rebellion • Executed 300 “Bloody Mary” • Unpopular: repealed laws passed by Edward • Heretics killed, property returned to Church • Protestant rebels rally around Elizabeth • Plantation of Ireland to solidify claim • Married to her cousin, Phillip II of Spain (age 37) • No children • Unpopular marriage

  14. Elizabeth I • 1558-1603 • Religious settlement of 1559 • Act of Supremacy • E. is supreme governor of the Church of England • Act of Uniformity • Church attendance required • But some consideration given to Catholic elements of the new Church

  15. Mary, Queen of the Scots • Became queen of Scotland at 6 days old (1542) • Was betrothed to Edward Tudor, her cousin • Alliance fell apart and Mary married the future French king (no children) • Later married for love

  16. Mary Stuart • Valid claim to the English throne after Elizabeth • Catholic. Faced religious war in Scotland. • Calvinists vs. Catholics • Married Lord Darnley (who also had a claim to the English throne). • Their child inherits a strong claim • Eventually James I of England • Captured by disloyal troops, imprisoned, executed for treason against Elizabeth after 18 years

  17. The Scottish Inheritance • Elizabeth will die without an heir • Some branches of the family are not acceptable heirs: • Catholics • Relatives of Lady Jane Grey • The Scottish King, James VI, is the only reasonable alternative

  18. England – James I

  19. James VI of Scotland, James I of Great Britain • 1603-1625 • The True Law of Free Monarchies • Divine right of kings • Dissolved parliament many times • Sold titles to raise money • Favored “new” nobility – more loyal • Denied privilege to “old” nobility – tied to past and primarily Catholic • Religious troubles • Puritans want more reform • Religious tolerance: permitted Catholicism in England and Calvinism in Scotland

  20. England – Court of the Star Chamber • TUDOR ERA: law court beginnings as meetings of the king’s royal council • Heard appeals from lower courts • Cases of public disorder • Property rights – especially land related • Public corruption • Trade and government • Could order torture, prison and fines, but not the death sentence

  21. Court of the Star Chamber • STUART ERA: power grew • Tool of the king -- misuse and abuse of power • James I and his son Charles used the court to: • suppress opposition to royal policies • try nobles too powerful to be brought to trial in the lower courts • Secret sessions, no right of appeal, punishment was swift and severe to any enemy of the crown. • Abolished in 1641

  22. France in the 15th– 16th centuries

  23. France • Becomes less feudal, more centralized • Strong, absolute monarchy • Divine Right of Kings • Rise of the Valois monarchs

  24. The Valois Dynasty in France

  25. Louis XI – the “Spider King” • Born 1423- Died 1483 (Ruled from 1461) • Ousted own father from power • Removed power from nobles, clergy to enhance his power • Beginnings of strong French state • Large army to secure borders • Taxes • Revenue used to purchase political support

  26. “His Majesty” Francis I • 1494-1547 (Ruled from 1515) • “Absorbed” last independent fiefdoms (Burgundy) • French -- official language • State councils greater power than Church councils • Estates General – never called • King’s Council – ruled on justice, taxes, military • Counseil des Affaires • Small advisory group • Clashed with the Parlement de Paris –weakened Provincial parlements owe loyal to king

  27. Francis and Finances • Taxes • Taille: direct tax on people and property. Doubled. • Gabelle: salt tax. Tripled. • Why? Palaces and wars were extremely expensive • 1542: Rebellion over Gabelle • Raised revenue: • Sold crown jewels • Sold crown lands • Sold political offices

  28. Francis and Religion • Early Reformation: Francis was tolerant of Protestants • Reformers in Paris are condemned by Parlement; therefore, Francis supports them • Concordat of Bologna • 1516. Francis can appoint 600 church offices • Increases king’s power • Diluted power of Parlement de Paris

  29. Henry II • Married Catherine de Medici • Wars with Austria (in Italy) • Liberate Italy from Charles V • 1559: Wars shift to the Low Countries • Henry loses • Must relinquish claims to Italy • Gruesome death Long-term affair with Diane de Poitiers

  30. Francis II • Married Mary Stuart • France hopes to gain control of Scotland through Mary. • Their children will have a claim to France AND England (through Mary) • King at 15 • Dead at 16

  31. Charles IX and Henry III • Charles – King at 10, dead at 24 • Physically weak, Mother claimed he was crazy • Henry – Favorite of Catherine de Medici • Well Educated • No Children • Assassinated by a Catholic Monk

  32. The End of the Valois Kings . . . The Beginning of theBourbon Kings

  33. Huguenots: Protestants in France • 1562 = French Wars of Religion • Partly dynastic struggle between Bourbon and Guise • St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre – 1572 • 1000’s killed in Paris, 100,000 in countryside • Edict of Nantes – 1574 • Henry IV grants equality between C. and H. • But . . . no new H. churches • Edict of Fontainebleau – 1685 • Revokes Nantes

  34. Henry IV 1553-1610 • A Huguenot • Catholic League attempted to deny his claim. • Catholic League: “Ultra Catholics”: the Pope and Phillip II • Elizabeth I supported him • Converted to Catholicism during Wars of Religion • Edict of Nantes: offered religious toleration for French Protestants “Paris is well worth a mass”

  35. France: Royal Council • Appointed by the king from among the following: • Princes of the Blood (the most senior nobles) • Everyone descended directly from the Capet line of kings (from 900 AD) • Senior prelates • “prelate” = preferred member of the clergy Sets up a system of unequal representation

  36. French Parlement • Court of appeals – ruled on king’s laws on a local level. • Francis I began selling the right to be on a parlement. • Became a hereditary position

  37. France: Estates-General • Estates-General was an assembly of the different classes of French society • Only gathered when the king saw benefit (to raise taxes, for example)

  38. England and France -- Differences • England: stability • Parliament has some control over king • France: constant warfare and long-lasting effects from the 100 Years War left a sense of instability • No unity of purpose • King used representatives in the provinces to govern for him (parlements) • Local traditions, ancient privilege still played an important role, even though kings reduced the roles of nobility and clergy

  39. Empire of Charles V

  40. The Habsburg Dynasty

  41. Charles V • 1500-1558 • Most powerful man in Europe • Abdicated in 1559 • Habsburg Empire split in 2

  42. Structure of the Holy Roman Empire • Voltaire:“Neither holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire” • Cross between a state and a religious confederation • No strong unity • Dwindling power • Leaders chosen by Princes (Electors) • Eventually becomes a Hapsburg hereditary title

  43. Charles V: Religious Problems • Rift in the Church • Diet of Worms – 1521 • Peasant’s War – 1524-26 • Schmalkaldic League • Council of Trent – 1545 • Beginnings of the Counter-Reformation • Peace of Augsburg – 1555 • Each prince chooses his religion

  44. Charles and Spain Several domestic problems • Because he ruled so much of Europe, his Spanish subjects distrusted him • Mostly an absentee ruler • nobles attempted to gain power • Charles appointed friends and relatives to powerful positions in Spain • Demands more money from Spain to finance war against France and Ottomans • Revolt is inevitable

  45. Charles V: Political and Economic Problems • Wars with France • Italian Wars • War with the Ottoman Empire • Turks press westward, nearly to Vienna

  46. Kingdoms of Spain: 1492

  47. Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain • Reconquista – Since the Muslim invasion, Catholics pushed out Moors and Jews (mostly middle class) • Two types of Conversos: • Moriscos: New Christians of Moorish origin. • Moors were given the choice to become Catholic or leave Spain for North Africa • Marranos: Spanish Jews • Secretly maintained ancestral traditions • Many leave Spain for Venice and Ottoman Empire

  48. Inquisition • Inquisition -- Keeps Spain Catholic, not Protestant • Keeps out modern ideas, reform • Targets conversos, especially Jews • Begins anti-Semitism in Europe • 4000 Jews murdered in Portugal • 1509: Germany begins persecuting Jews • By 1600, Spain as a nation begins to decline • As wealth from New World increases, less attention is paid to nation-building.

  49. Phillip II of Spain and Portugal 1526-1598 Son of Charles V International problems • With Netherlands: Revolt • With France: Joined the Pope in French Wars of Religion (1562) • With England (1588): Spanish Armada, death of Mary Stuart • Ottoman Empire • Control of the Mediterranean • Turks finally defeated at Lepanto in 1571