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Rise of the New Monarchs

Rise of the New Monarchs

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Rise of the New Monarchs

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  1. Rise of the New Monarchs 1.6

  2. Introduction – 1460-1520 • Consolidated power, created foundation for Europe’s first nation-states in France, England, and Spain • Never achieved total power in the government • Characteristics • Reduced the power of the nobility through • Taxation • Taking lands • Creation of standing armies • Reduced political power of the clergy • Created more efficient bureaucracies • Increased political power of the bourgeoisie (middle class)

  3. France • Rise of the Valois family • Louis XI “Spider King” (1461-1483) • Created large standing army • Increased taxes • Builds and maintains roads

  4. France • Francis I (1515-1547) • Concordat of Bologna • King of France has power to appoint bishops to Gallican Church • Big blow to Papal prestige in France • Taille – a direct head tax to increase national treasury

  5. England • War of the Roses (1455-1477) • Civil war between York and Lancaster families • Yorkists win and build up English wealth • Henry VII (1489-1509) • Member of the Tudor family • Reduced power of the nobility through the Star Chamber • Nobles cannot have private armies

  6. Spain • Ferdinand and Isabella (1478-1516) • Unite the Spanish kingdoms of Aragon and Castille • Reconquista (1492) • Goal was to remove the Moors and Jews and Christianize the country of Spain • Loss of Jews and Moors resulted in a significant decline of the Spanish middle class

  7. Holy Roman Empire • NOT Holy, NOT Roman, NOT an Empire • Consisted of about 300 semi-autonomous states in Germany • Each state had its own foreign policy and wars • NOT a “new monarchy” • Emperor didn’t have centralized control over the states, couldn’t levy taxes/raise armies

  8. Charles V • Hapsburg family – Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain • Led armies which sacked Rome in 1527 • Sought to prevent spread of Reformation in Germany and invasion of Muslims from SE Europe