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Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages. Trust vs. mistrust Autonomy vs. shame and doubt Initiative vs. guilt Competence (industry) vs. inferiority Identity vs. role confusion Intimacy vs. isolation Generativity vs. stagnation (Ego) Integrity vs. despair.

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erikson s psychosocial stages
Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
  • Trust vs. mistrust
  • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
  • Initiative vs. guilt
  • Competence (industry) vs. inferiority
  • Identity vs. role confusion
  • Intimacy vs. isolation
  • Generativity vs. stagnation
  • (Ego) Integrity vs. despair
jean piaget s theory of cognitive development
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years)
    • Object permanence
    • Stranger anxiety
    • Separation anxiety
jean piaget s theory of cognitive development3
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years)
  • Preoperational stage (2 to 6 years)
    • Use of symbols
    • Pretend play
    • Language development
    • Egocentrism
jean piaget s theory of cognitive development4
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years)
  • Preoperational stage (2 to 6 years)
  • Concrete Operational stage (7 to 11 years)
    • Conservation
    • Reversibility
    • Seriation
    • Classification
jean piaget s theory of cognitive development5
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years)
  • Preoperational stage (2 to 6 years)
  • Concrete Operational stage (7 to 11 years)
  • Formal Operational stage (12 years – adulthood)
    • Abstract logic
    • Potential for mature moral reasoning
freud s psychoanalytic theory three components of personality
Freud’s Psychoanalytic TheoryThree Components of Personality
  • Id
    • Eros – libido, Thanatos, Pleasure principle
  • Ego
    • Reality principle
  • Superego
    • Conscience, Ego-ideal
defense mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms
  • Ego produces defense mechanisms to reduce anxiety.
defense mechanisms8
Defense Mechanisms
  • Repression
  • Regression
  • Reaction formation
  • Displacement
  • Projection
  • Denial
psychosexual stages
Psychosexual Stages
  • Oral
  • Anal
  • Phallic
  • Latency
  • Genital
information processing theory
Information Processing Theory
  • Children and adults gradually gain processing efficiency when they improve in perception, memory, attention, and problem-solving skills.
vygotsky s sociocultural theory
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
  • Social interaction with more knowledgeable members of society help children acquire ways of thinking and behaving according to the culture.
evolutionary theory
Evolutionary Theory
  • Organisms adapt in order to survive and produce offspring. Developmental phenomena have adaptive value.
classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning

Learning by association

  • Unconditioned stimulus
  • Unconditioned response
classical conditioning14
Classical Conditioning

Learning by association

  • Unconditioned stimulus
  • Unconditioned response
  • Neutral stimulus
classical conditioning15
Classical Conditioning

Learning by association

  • Unconditioned stimulus
  • Unconditioned response
  • Neutral stimulus
  • Conditioned stimulus
  • Conditioned response
operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning

Learning by consequences

  • Reinforcer – increases behavior
    • Positive reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement
operant conditioning17
Operant Conditioning

Learning by consequences

  • Reinforcer – increases behavior
    • Positive reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement
  • Punishment – decreases behavior
observational learning
Learning by observing others

Albert Bandura

Bobo doll study

Vicarious conditioning

Observational Learning