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Figure 4.2 Role of biological lipids

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Figure 4.2 Role of biological lipids. Lipid bilayer, membrane structure. Emulsifiers, surfactants. Energy storage, waxes. Lipids. Toxins, antibiotics, insecticides. Enzyme co-factors. Signaling molecules. Figure 5.10a. Fatty acid (in this case, palmitic acid). Glycerol.

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slide1

Figure 4.2 Role of biological lipids

Lipid bilayer, membrane structure

Emulsifiers, surfactants

Energy storage, waxes

Lipids

Toxins, antibiotics, insecticides

Enzyme co-factors

Signaling molecules

figure 5 10a

Figure 5.10a

Fatty acid(in this case, palmitic acid)

Glycerol

(a) One of three dehydration reactions in the synthesis of a fat

figure 5 10b

Ester linkage

Figure 5.10b

(b) Fat molecule (triacylglycerol)

figure 5 11

(b) Unsaturated fat

(a) Saturated fat

Figure 5.11

Structuralformula of asaturated fatmolecule

Structuralformula of anunsaturated fatmolecule

Space-fillingmodel of stearicacid, a saturatedfatty acid

Space-filling modelof oleic acid, anunsaturated fattyacid

Cis double bondcauses bending.

slide5

Box 4-3, Figure 1 Fatty acid carbon numbering systems

Palmitoleic acid

C16:1 D9 (cis)

(Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid

Linoleic acid

C18:2 D9,12 (cis)

(9Z,12Z)-Octadecadienoic acidw6 fatty acid

figure 5 12

Choline

Hydrophilic head

Phosphate

Figure 5.12

Glycerol

Fatty acids

Hydrophobic tails

Hydrophilichead

Hydrophobictails

(a) Structural formula

(b) Space-filling model

(c) Phospholipid symbol

figure 5 13

WATER

Hydrophilichead

Figure 5.13

Hydrophobictail

WATER

slide8

Figure 4.8 Main types of membrane lipids

Phospholipid

Glycolipid

Cholesterol

Glycerophospholipid

Glycerolipids

Sphingolipid

Sterol

Phosphatidyl-

ethanolamine

Monogalactosyl-

glyceroglycolipid

Ganglioside GM1

Cholesterol

Head group Core Tail

Figure 5.14

Polar Non-polar

slide9

Figure 4.12 Head group functionality, size and charge of glycerophospholipids

R

(* pK value for primary phosphate group ranges from 2.5 to 3.5 in all phospholipids)

slide10

Figure 4.26 Sterol lipids and hopenes in eukarya and bacteria

Bacteria

Animals

Plants

Fungi

Squalene

Hopene

in bacteria

in

eukarya

Lanosterol

slide13

Figure 4.30 Lipid derived signaling molecules

Membrane lipid precursor

Animal (C20, arachidonic acid)

Animal (C20, arachidonic acid)

Plant (C18, linoleic acid)

Animal (C20, arachidonic acid)

Glycerophospholipids

Plasmalogens

Phosphatidylinositiol

Cholesterol

Signaling molecule

Prostaglandin PGE1

Leukotriene A4

Jasmonic acid

Anandamide

(arachidonyl ehtanolamide)

Lysophospholipid

PAF

IP3

Testosterone

slide14

KEGG

A data base of molecular compounds

http://www.genome.ad.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?br08001.keg