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  1. Antibiotics

  2. Defination • Anantibiotic is an agent that inhibits bacterial growth or kills bacteria. So often called as antibacterials.

  3. History • The term antibiotic was first used in 1942 by Selman Waksman. • Penicillin, the first natural antibiotic discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928.

  4. Alexander Fleming

  5. Why we use antibiotics?? • Antibiotics are use to treat infection caused by bacteria and protoza. • Such as :- • Illness. • Stomach infection.

  6. Classification on the basis of action bactericidal bacteriostatic • It kills bacteria directly. • For ex. Penicillin, monobactams, daptomycin, nitrofurantion, cephalosporin, vancomycin, • It prevents them from dividing. • For ex. Sulphonamides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, erthryomycin, trimethoprim

  7. Antibiotics Dose – dependent Time – dependent • Antibiotic effect directly depends on their concentration in the locus of inflammation. • High dose 1 -2 times/24 hour. • Ex. Aminoglycosides • Effectiveness depends upon a period of time, during which concentration in blood overwhelms MIC(minimum inhibitory concentration) for a particular causative agent • Ex. Beta- lactames

  8. Antibiotics

  9. Principles to choose • Presence of substantiated indications for prescription of an antibiotic. • Choosing of the most effective and the least toxic drug, intime administration • Introduction of optimal doses with optimal frequency, taking into consideration complexity of the disease • Estimation of duration of treatment • Control after treatment • Monitoring and prophylaxis of negative side effects

  10. Side effects

  11. Antibiotic

  12. Antibiotics Penicillin G Telethromycin • Brand name - Pentids • Used for streptococcal infections, syphilis, andLyme disease • Chemical formula - C16H18N2O4S • Brand name – Ketek • Used for the treatment of Pneumonia • Chemical formula - C43H65N5O10

  13. Penicillium G

  14. Telethromycin

  15. Submitted to – Divyajyoti sir Submitted by – harmanpreet kaur(2951)shonam(2911)lavishA(2961)ZOOLOGY 1ST YEAR 1ST SECTION