Classification • Narcissistic defense mechanism children and psychosis • Immature defense mechanism adolescents, hysteria, depression • Neurotic defense mechanism adult under stress, Obsession • Mature defense mechanism
Defense mechanism Unconscious, or partly conscious, maneuvers by which we avoid or minimize anxiety due to unpleasurable/troubling/potentially troubling id impulses , superego injunctions , or realistic dangers
Defense mechanism Usual pattern Id impulse or superego injunction (including injunctions from conscience) —> emotion (including signal anxiety) that results from threat of id impulse being let loose or from superego's injunctions —> defense mechanism.
Denial • The attempt to deal with a disturbing fact by denying its existence or refusing to accept its significance." My best friend dies in an accident and I insist that I feel o.k. • psychotic denial when reality testing is grossly impaired.
Projection • A husband is cheating on his wife. His wife finds out and he says, "How dare you invade my privacy. Don't you trust me?" The husband is the one harbouring the guilt (because he is the true cheat), but he is fully disavowing the feeling in himself and instead saying it's his wife who is the cheat. He basically completely distances himself from his unacceptable feelings.
Acting out I'm upset that my wife make more money than I do, so to punish her I refuse to do any household chores.
introjection/introjective identification • Opposite of projection. Involves taking in something (an object or an object's emotions) from the outside, external world and making it a part of your fantasy life. Implies a certain bodily symbolization of the object . • My husband dies and I cope with the unbearable grief by starting to act like him.
Identification with the aggressor My father abuses me and I start acting like him in order to make him think better of me (and, hence, not abuse me).
Identification • often used in a generic sense to refer to all the mental processes by which an individual becomes like another in one or several aspects. • The three kinds of identification include: internalization, introjection incorporation
Regression "It's not my fault. She started it."
Dissociation The individual deals with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors with a breakdown in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, perception of self or the environment, or sensory/motor behavior.
Displacement • Defense mechanism involving redirection of emotional feelings from their original object to a substitute object related to the original one by a chain of associations • The substitute object may be less threatening than the original one.
Rationalization An adult has sex with a prepubescent child and insists he did it because she needed to learn about sexuality
Intellectualization My husband just died and instead of acknowledging my feelings of grief and crying, for instance, I tell myself it makes no logical or philosophical sense to be upset because he is gone and being upset will not bring him back.
Undoing • Dealing with feelings of emotional conflict due to a given act by using words or behavior designed to symbolically negate it or magically cause the act to not have happened. • In undoing, the person tries to undo the original act itself.
Conversion I hate to play the piano, but my mother forces me to take lessons. I end up develop paralysis in my arms, even though there is no physical cause ( no physical disease)
Repression • The individual deals with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by expelling disturbing wishes, thoughts, or experiences from conscious awareness. • The feeling component may remain conscious, detached from its associated ideas.
Reaction formation • The individual deals with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by substituting behavior, thoughts, or feelings that are diametrically opposed to his or her own unacceptable thoughts of feelings. • eg. I dislike you so much that I shower you with affection. The diametrically opposed substituted behavior, thoughts, or feelings are usually excessive or over-zealous.
Altruism I am depressed so I go out and volunteer at a nursing home to feel better.
Ascetism I live a life of simplicity and avoid ordinary, earthly, corporeal pleasures
Humor The individual deals with emotional conflict or external stressors by emphasizing the amusing or ironic aspects of the conflict or stressor. My pants fall down in the middle of the street, and I just stand there laughing at myself.
Sublimation I'm angry at my boss, but instead of punching him in the face, I go for a punching bag or a doll or I go paint a masterpiece (socially acceptable behavior)
Suppression The individual deals with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by intentionally avoiding thinking about disturbing problems, wishes, feelings, or experiences.