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DNA Replication

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DNA Replication. DNA Length. DNA molecules are surprisingly long. The nucleus of a human cell contains more than 1 meter of DNA. DNA must be folded and coiled in order to fit in such a small space. Structure of Chromosomes. Chromosomes are made up of chromatin .

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Presentation Transcript
dna length
DNA Length
  • DNA molecules are surprisingly long.
  • The nucleus of a human cell contains more than 1 meter of DNA.
  • DNA must be folded and coiled in order to fit in such a small space.
structure of chromosomes
Structure of Chromosomes
  • Chromosomes are made up of chromatin.
    • Chromatin is DNA tightly coiled around proteins called histones.
    • DNA and histone molecules form packets called nucleosomes, which fold enormous lengths of DNA into tiny spaces.
dna replication4
DNA Replication
  • DNA is a double helix (two strands wound around each other).
  • Each strand has ALL the info needed to reconstruct the other half by the mechanism of base pairing.
base pairing
Base Pairing
  • If you separate the two strands, the rules of base pairing allow you to reconstruct the sequence of the other strand.
  • A = T
  • G = C
  • Before mitosis (cell division), the cell duplicates its DNA in a process called replication.
dna replication6
DNA Replication
  • During DNA replication:
    • The DNA molecule separates into 2 strands.
    • 2 new complementary strands are produced following the rules of base pairing.
  • Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template for the new strand.
how dna is replicated
How DNA Is Replicated
  • DNA replication is carried out by a series of enzymes.
  • The enzymes “unzip” (separate the strands) of a molecule of DNA.
  • The unzipping occurs when the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs are broken.
how dna is replicated8
How DNA Is Replicated
  • Each strand serves as a template for the attachment of complimentary bases.
    • Example: TACGTT produces ATGCAA (complimentary)
  • Each DNA molecule resulting from replication has one original strand and one new strand.
enzymes in dna replication
Enzymes in DNA Replication
  • The principle enzyme involved in DNA replication is called DNA polymerase.
  • It attaches (or polymerizes) individual nucleotides to produce DNA.
  • DNA polymerase also “proof-reads” each new DNA strand, helping to maximize the odds that each molecule is a perfect copy of the original DNA.