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often referred to as “attack ads,” • used to create a negative impression of one’s opponent • Could backfire Mudslinging
Use of popular symbols to create a positive connotation for the candidate OR • the use of negative or controversial symbols to create a negative connotation of one’s opponent. Transfer
Use of statistics, often in a one-sided manner • the omission of information that is crucial to drawing an informed and balanced conclusion. Card stacking
An attempt by a candidate to appeal to the average voter as just “one of the people.” Plain Folks
This ad type uses very vague words and phrases that have a positive effect on the viewer and appeal to a variety of interests. Glittering Generalities
to generate a positive “everybody’s doin’ it so you should too” mentality. Bandwagon
Juxtaposing positive images of one’s candidacy with negative images of the opponent in the same ad. Contrast Ad