e-Portfolios Scott Wilson 23-05-2005
Who am I? Assistant Director, CETIS Researcher, MELCOE IMS Participant Blogger Not Very Good Musician Music Fan Dad-to-be
The Order of Business • What are e-Portfolios for? • What do they contain? • Who owns and manages them? • How can standards help?
What is an e-Portfolio for? Recording Evidencing Reflecting Planning Presenting Assessing
Activities Formal learning Informal learning Employment Volunteering Military service Memberships and Affiliations Capabilities Competencies Skills Abilities Achievements Qualifications Awards Licenses Recording
Reflecting • Commentary by the subject on any aspect of themselves • Can be private, shared, or public • Examples include journals and blogs
Evidencing • The ‘traditional’ role of a portfolio: a collection of artifacts that say something about the subject: • Essays, documents, reports • Photos, artwork, music • Plans, blueprints, patents • Certificates, awards, references, reviews
Planning • Goals • Interests • Plans
Presenting • Its more than just prettifying the content; presenting offers an opportunity to tell a story or make a point • Structuring • Visualising • Narrating • Re-purposing
Assessing • Using an e-Portfolio for a specific purpose: • Gaining access to education or employment • Achieving a grade, or a promotion • Getting a license or certificate
Cultural Differences • UK: Primarily a set of information about goals, achievements, and reflections for personal development • US: Primarily a set of evidence for presentation and assessment
From school to college to university to work…wherever you go, someone is managing your e-portfolio! • A model for e-Portfolio as an institutionally-managed* construct • Key requirement is ability to export across transitions * but potentially ‘learner-centered’
Question: • What happens when I work or study in more than one organisation?
David Tosh Learning Technologist The University of Edinburgh firstname.lastname@example.org Ben Werdmuller Application Developer The University of Edinburgh email@example.com
The e-Portfolio lives in the intersection between the worlds for education, work, and home • A model for e-Portfolio as a learner-managed construct • Key requirement is easy-to-use tools and hosting services* *E.g. the “e-Portfolio-as-blog” approach
planning reflecting E-Portfolio? recording recording evidencing presenting
Pieces of e-Portfolio are scattered amongst employers, institutions, websites, and applications • A model for e-Portfolio as a learner-assembled construct • Key requirement is interoperability
Or, to put it another way Depending on where it sits, the application that supports an e-Portfolio may be: • An enterprise solution • A weblog or personal information solution • An aggregator or “bloggregator”
So which is it to be? • Dedicated e-Portfolio tools of the “first generation” (e.g. OSPI) tend to be transitional and enterprise-oriented • Current tools under development (e.g. ELGG) look more intersectional, but are evolving towards aggregation … is ownership the key consideration?
Question: how can an e-Portfolio be learner-centered (and learner-owned?)… …yet at the same time be scaffolded and supported in the learning process?
Ownership  • Some things are clearly the provenance of the subject: • Personal reflections • Plans and goals • Statements of interest • Independently-produced artifacts (e.g. photos)
Ownership  • Some things are clearly the provenance of an institution: • Awards • Artifacts with institutional IPR e.g., patents • Official records of achievement • Materials used in learning e.g., learning objects
Ownership  • Some things are clearly the provenance of an employer: • References • Artifacts created for the company, e.g. source code, products • Official records of conduct • Official records of training outcomes
Ownership  • Some things have problematic ownership: • Records of personal tutoring and coaching • Artifacts created ‘outside company time’ • Posts to forums and blogs within an LMS or other enterprise system
The Question of Ownership • Given that the pieces of an e-Portfolio have a range of owners, how do we make e-Portfolios work? • how do we include or reference material? • How do we verify aspects of e-Portfolios for assessment?
Who owns what… • Sometimes the artifact can only be referenced, but the metadata about it can be either included or referenced • Sometimes only the metadata about an artifact can be referenced, not the artifact itself • Sometimes, there is only metadata; there is no artifact
Verification and evidencing of claims • Metadata in a portfolio can often be seen in terms of a claim: • A claim that an institution gave the subject a specific grade • A claim that the subject has a specific skill • Some claims are best verified, some are best evidenced, some need both
Evidencing • I can play guitar, as evidenced by this song I recorded • I know Java, as evidenced by this code I wrote • I can do first aid, as evidenced by this training certificate • I am a capable employee, as evidenced by this reference from my last employer
Verification • I got a 2:1 in Psychology, as verified by checking with the University • I did a training course in UML, as verified by checking with the employer • I got this reference, as verified by calling the referee • I like music, because I say so
authentication • The owner holds the artifacts and metadata, and the subject has to authenticate to get at them • The e-portfolio is pretty bare, just some links to organisations which own the information • All organisations need to manage accounts in perpetuity • All organisations must never lose any data!
assertion • The owners allow the metadata to be included in the subject’s portfolio, but provide a means of verification • For example, using a digital signature
How does the subject manage disclosure? • By providing alternative views of the portfolio for particular audiences • By providing access controls over a single portfolio • Same issues as for any disclosure of personal information
Standards and e-Portfolio • IMS Learner Information Packaging • IMS e-Portfolio • HR-XML Resumé • X/HTML • RDF • Other…
IMS • IMS Global Learning Consortium • Specifications consortium in e-Learning • Various members; government organisations, companies, universities • http://www.imsglobal.org
IMS LIP • “Learner Information Packaging” • One of the earliest IMS specifications, along with metadata (now IEEE LOM) • Very comprehensive data model • But verbose, and prolix