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  1. e-Portfolios Scott Wilson 23-05-2005

  2. Who am I? Assistant Director, CETIS Researcher, MELCOE IMS Participant Blogger Not Very Good Musician Music Fan Dad-to-be

  3. The Order of Business • What are e-Portfolios for? • What do they contain? • Who owns and manages them? • How can standards help?

  4. What is an e-Portfolio for? Recording Evidencing Reflecting Planning Presenting Assessing

  5. Activities Formal learning Informal learning Employment Volunteering Military service Memberships and Affiliations Capabilities Competencies Skills Abilities Achievements Qualifications Awards Licenses Recording

  6. Reflecting • Commentary by the subject on any aspect of themselves • Can be private, shared, or public • Examples include journals and blogs

  7. Evidencing • The ‘traditional’ role of a portfolio: a collection of artifacts that say something about the subject: • Essays, documents, reports • Photos, artwork, music • Plans, blueprints, patents • Certificates, awards, references, reviews

  8. Planning • Goals • Interests • Plans

  9. Presenting • Its more than just prettifying the content; presenting offers an opportunity to tell a story or make a point • Structuring • Visualising • Narrating • Re-purposing

  10. Assessing • Using an e-Portfolio for a specific purpose: • Gaining access to education or employment • Achieving a grade, or a promotion • Getting a license or certificate

  11. Cultural Differences • UK: Primarily a set of information about goals, achievements, and reflections for personal development • US: Primarily a set of evidence for presentation and assessment

  12. Where is the e-Portfolio, and who owns and manages it?

  13. transition

  14. From school to college to university to work…wherever you go, someone is managing your e-portfolio! • A model for e-Portfolio as an institutionally-managed* construct • Key requirement is ability to export across transitions * but potentially ‘learner-centered’

  15. Question: • What happens when I work or study in more than one organisation?

  16. intersection

  17. David Tosh Learning Technologist The University of Edinburgh d.tosh@ed.ac.uk Ben Werdmuller Application Developer The University of Edinburgh b.werd@ed.ac.uk

  18. The e-Portfolio lives in the intersection between the worlds for education, work, and home • A model for e-Portfolio as a learner-managed construct • Key requirement is easy-to-use tools and hosting services* *E.g. the “e-Portfolio-as-blog” approach

  19. aggregation

  20. planning reflecting E-Portfolio? recording recording evidencing presenting

  21. Pieces of e-Portfolio are scattered amongst employers, institutions, websites, and applications • A model for e-Portfolio as a learner-assembled construct • Key requirement is interoperability

  22. Or, to put it another way Depending on where it sits, the application that supports an e-Portfolio may be: • An enterprise solution • A weblog or personal information solution • An aggregator or “bloggregator”

  23. So which is it to be? • Dedicated e-Portfolio tools of the “first generation” (e.g. OSPI) tend to be transitional and enterprise-oriented • Current tools under development (e.g. ELGG) look more intersectional, but are evolving towards aggregation … is ownership the key consideration?

  24. Question: how can an e-Portfolio be learner-centered (and learner-owned?)… …yet at the same time be scaffolded and supported in the learning process?

  25. Ownership

  26. Ownership [1] • Some things are clearly the provenance of the subject: • Personal reflections • Plans and goals • Statements of interest • Independently-produced artifacts (e.g. photos)

  27. Ownership [2] • Some things are clearly the provenance of an institution: • Awards • Artifacts with institutional IPR e.g., patents • Official records of achievement • Materials used in learning e.g., learning objects

  28. Ownership [3] • Some things are clearly the provenance of an employer: • References • Artifacts created for the company, e.g. source code, products • Official records of conduct • Official records of training outcomes

  29. Ownership [4] • Some things have problematic ownership: • Records of personal tutoring and coaching • Artifacts created ‘outside company time’ • Posts to forums and blogs within an LMS or other enterprise system

  30. The Question of Ownership • Given that the pieces of an e-Portfolio have a range of owners, how do we make e-Portfolios work? • how do we include or reference material? • How do we verify aspects of e-Portfolios for assessment?

  31. Objects and metadata

  32. Who owns what… • Sometimes the artifact can only be referenced, but the metadata about it can be either included or referenced • Sometimes only the metadata about an artifact can be referenced, not the artifact itself • Sometimes, there is only metadata; there is no artifact

  33. Verification and evidencing of claims • Metadata in a portfolio can often be seen in terms of a claim: • A claim that an institution gave the subject a specific grade • A claim that the subject has a specific skill • Some claims are best verified, some are best evidenced, some need both

  34. Evidencing • I can play guitar, as evidenced by this song I recorded • I know Java, as evidenced by this code I wrote • I can do first aid, as evidenced by this training certificate • I am a capable employee, as evidenced by this reference from my last employer

  35. Verification • I got a 2:1 in Psychology, as verified by checking with the University • I did a training course in UML, as verified by checking with the employer • I got this reference, as verified by calling the referee • I like music, because I say so

  36. authentication

  37. authentication • The owner holds the artifacts and metadata, and the subject has to authenticate to get at them • The e-portfolio is pretty bare, just some links to organisations which own the information • All organisations need to manage accounts in perpetuity • All organisations must never lose any data!

  38. assertion

  39. assertion • The owners allow the metadata to be included in the subject’s portfolio, but provide a means of verification • For example, using a digital signature

  40. Privacy and Disclosure

  41. How does the subject manage disclosure? • By providing alternative views of the portfolio for particular audiences • By providing access controls over a single portfolio • Same issues as for any disclosure of personal information

  42. Standards

  43. Standards and e-Portfolio • IMS Learner Information Packaging • IMS e-Portfolio • HR-XML Resumé • X/HTML • RDF • Other…

  44. IMS • IMS Global Learning Consortium • Specifications consortium in e-Learning • Various members; government organisations, companies, universities • http://www.imsglobal.org

  45. IMS LIP • “Learner Information Packaging” • One of the earliest IMS specifications, along with metadata (now IEEE LOM) • Very comprehensive data model • But verbose, and prolix