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Developing Successful Readers. Scientifically-Researched Reading Strategies that Work By Colleen Street and Deb Hehnke. URGENT. EMERGENCY. HURRY. Reading is Urgent.

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Developing Successful Readers

Scientifically-Researched Reading

Strategies that Work

By Colleen Street and Deb Hehnke


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URGENT

EMERGENCY

HURRY


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Reading is Urgent

  • There is a .88 probability that if you are a poor reader at the end of first grade that you will be a poor reader at the end of fourth grade.

  • (Juel, 1988)

  • 74% of children who are poor readers in 3rd grade remain poor readers in 9th grade.

  • (Francis et al., 1996)


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Reading is Urgent

Minutes Per Day

Words Per Year

Out of School In School

Out of School In School

90th %ile 21.2 33.4

50th %ile 4.6 9.2

10th %ile .1 1.0

1,823,000 2,357,000

282,000 601,000

8,000 51,000

Andersen, 1992


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  • Reading is urgent

  • Did you know…….

  • People in the United States who are illiterate represent:

  • 75 percent of the unemployed

  • 1/3 of the mothers receiving ADC

  • 85 percent of the juveniles who appear in court

  • 60 percent of prison inmates

    • --International Dyslexia Association

    • Skilled readers….

  • Read virtually every letter in every word, perceiving letters

  • in chunks not individually

  • Read almost every word, skipping only a few words

  • like and and the

  • Rely little on contextual information because word recognition

  • skills are so rapid, automatic and efficient

  • --Straight Talk About Reading, Moat 1999



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    What are the Big Ideas in Reading?

    Alphabetics

    -Phonemic Awareness Instruction

    -Phonics Instruction

    Fluency

    Comprehension

    -Vocabulary Instruction

    -Text Comprehension Instruction

    Report of the National Reading Panel Teaching Children to Read, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1999


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    The 5 Big Ideas in Beginning Reading:

    1. Phonemic Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words.

    2. Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to form words.

    3. Fluency with Text: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text.

    4. Vocabulary: The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning.

    5. Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to convey meaning.


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    RtI Considerations

    • Pre-plan the RtI model that will be most effective to meet the needs of your school district

    • Frameworks are the same--delivery system will vary

      --visitations to established RtI districts

      --reviewed literature and developed

    • Philosophy

      --aims/goals

      --defined research based

    • Assessments/interventions/strategies

      --determine team members and roles/resources already available


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    Special Education

    Entitlement

    Level III

    Consultation

    with Extended Problems Solving

    Level II

    Consultation

    with Other Resources

    Level I

    Consultation

    Between

    Teachers-

    Parents

    • Four Levels

    Amount of Resources Needed

    to Solve the Problem

    Intensity of Problem


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    Thinking Differently

    • Assessment

      -research-based

      -reliable

      -quick/efficient

      -cost effective

    • Interventions

    • Meaningful parent participation


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    PUT RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE

    • Have a systematic process to periodically screen

    • all students K-3 to determine which students are not

    • meeting critical milestones in early literacy.

    • Procedures to provide data-informed interventions in

    • small groups for students who are in need of strategic or

    • intensive support

    • Continued monitoring to ensure

    • 1) that the instruction is helping

    • 2) that the student is staying on track

    • once he reaches benchmark

    I’ve DIBEL’d Now What?

    Susan L. Hall, Ed.D,


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    ACCURATE INTERVENTI0NS = ACCURATE DATA RESULTS

    When planning data-informed interventions, the activities must be carefully selected. Then the intervention instruction will address those specific skills the student needs.

    The closer the link between student needs and instruction, the more effective the intervention will be.

    I’ve DIBEL’d Now What?

    Susan L. Hall, Ed.D


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    • Data Discussion

    • Utilize multiple data sources to develop instructional recommendations i.e.,

      LAS, ITBS, CoGat, DRA, BRI, District Assessments, CBM’s, DIBEL’s, etc.

    • Consider Grade Level Teams to review/evaluate data and make instructional decisions.

    • Use the data to determine the individual student need(s) may be served as an individual or in a small group.

    • Determine a research based strategy/intervention to improve the specific skill(s) within a deficit area.

    • GIPS has chosen to focus on Reading Skills (K-2) and Behavioral Concerns (K-5):

    • Math, articulation, vocabulary,

    • oral and written language etc do currently not have

    • scientifically research based strategies at this time.


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    • Questions for Analyzing Student Errors

    • Initial Sound Fluency (ISF)

    • How accurate is the student with initial sounds?

    • How fluent is the student with initial sounds?

    • Is the student more able to identify initial sounds when he can point to the answers (rather than say supply the sound?

    • Describe any other unusual error patterns.

    I’ve DIBEL’d Now What?

    Susan L. Hall, Ed.D


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    Phoneme Segmentation Fluency

    • Does the student know how to segment phonemes?

    • How many times does the student partially segment

      rather than completely segment the word?

    • How accurate is the student in segmenting phonemes?

    • How fluent is the student in segmenting phonemes?

    • How accurate is the student’s knowledge of initial sounds?

    • How accurate is the student’s knowledge of ending sounds?

    • How accurate is the student’s knowledge of vowels?

    I’ve DIBEL’d Now What?

    Susan L. Hall, Ed.D


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    • Nonsense Word Fluency

    • Does the student provide sound by sound or whole word?

    • How accurate is the student’s knowledge of sound-letter

      correspondence?

    • How fluent is the student in reading nonsense words?

    • How accurate is the student’s knowledge of initial letters?

    • How accurate is the student’s knowledge of final letters?

    • How accurate is the student’s knowledge of middle vowels?

    I’ve DIBEL’d Now What?

    Susan L. Hall, Ed.D


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    • Oral Reading Fluency

    • How accurate is the student’s reading of words in passages?

    • How fluent is the student’s reading of words in passages?

    • How well did the student read non-phonetic sight words?

    • How well did the student read phonetically regular words?

    • Did the student remember a word provided and successfully read it the second time it occurs in the passage?

      Retell Fluency

    • What percent of the ORF is the student’s RTF score?

      RTF total / ORF total = % RTF score

    I’ve DIBEL’d Now What?

    Susan L. Hall, Ed.D


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    I’ve DIBEL’d Now What?

    Susan L. Hall, Ed.D


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    Determining Expected Outcomes

    • To determine aimline, use the median score of 3 probes then draw a line to benchmark goal (DIBELS).

    • Monitor at student’s instructional level/skill level to ensure the instrument is sensitive to change. Compares the student to themselves.

    • Benchmark testing (3 times a year) at grade level. Compares the student to peers.

    • Reading fluency formula--First CWR total divided by Second CWR=A 100-A=%of increase. Acceptable performance is a 35% increase of CWR. (EX: First read 36, Second Read 45. 35/45 =.80 100-80=20--Not acceptable performance.)

    • Average student gains 2 words per week. Can determine growth for ORF by adding on 1 1/2 words per week to determine expected growth over 4-6 data points.



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    The Three-Tier Model

    I’ve DIBEL’d Now What?

    Susan L. Hall, Ed.D


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    Overview of Scientifically Researched Based Reading Intervention Programs

    • Stepping Stones

    • Headsprout

    • Scott-Foresman Early Reading Intervention

    • Read Naturally

    • SRA Reading Mastery

    • Sound Partners/Sound Partners Plus


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    Stepping Stones

    • Geared toward mastery of skills that contribute to phonemic awareness—listening, letter naming, phonological awareness, and serial processing—Stepping Stones to Literacy helps below-benchmark readers.

    • It aligns with proven principles of effective instruction in phonemic awareness. Each lesson features explicit instructions for use with small groups or individual students. (also has Spanish prompts)

      ***Lessons are scripted and self-contained.

      Lessons can be delivered by teacher or trained paraeducator.

      Each set of materials is about $225.


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    Headsprout

    » Especially for K-2, or older

    struggling readers with phonemic awareness/phonics deficits

    » Fun, online interactive lessons available at school or home

    » "Ready-to-read" printed stories

    » Automatic progress reports

    » Easy for teachers, fun for kids--lots of graphics

    » Research-based

    ***Best results are seen when students are monitored closely and have good attending skills.

    Site licenses must be purchased for each student at around $100 per student

    Check out sample lessons at headsprout.com


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    Scott-Foresman Early Reading Intervention

    • Research shows 97% of kindergarten children who were taught with Scott Foresman Early Reading Intervention experienced faster achievement rates and were able to sustain that level of achievement into second grade.

    • Scott Foresman Early Reading Intervention helps you make placement decisions and monitor progress, so you can focus instruction based on children's needs.

    • The instructional design of Scott Foresman Early Reading Intervention ensures the time, duration, and instructional delivery necessary for student success. This is a scripted program.

    • ***Awesome success with students in a short amount of time.

    • Quite costly at about $1500 per kit.

    • Lots of materials/items to pull for each session


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    Read Naturally

    • The core steps of the Read Naturally program incorporate the research-based strategies of teacher modeling, repeated reading, and progress monitoring to maximize students' fluency development. Some steps are designed to develop students' vocabulary and ensure that they understand what they read. Available for students in grades 1-12.

    • Read Naturally Steps:

    • Select a Story

    • Read along with key words on CD

    • Write a prediction

    • Cold timing--read the story for 1 minute to establish a baseline

    • Graph the baseline score

    • Read along with the story

    • Practice reading the story using repeated reading techniques.

    • Answer questions--comprehension questions about the story

    • Graph repeated reading scores

    • Retell the story in sequence

    • Practice and pass the word lists

      ***Materials are easy to use. Students can become independent workers with the program.

      Programs require CD players/headphones for each student

      Program costs are around $225 for each level.


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    SRA READING MASTERY

    The benefits and features of this program are:

    * All instruction is direct and unambiguous; tasks and activities are specified in detail.

    * Reading skills and strategies are specifically taught, applied and reviewed, maximizing student achievement.

    * All stories are composed entirely of words students have decoded in isolation, enabling students to build fluency and focus on the meaning.

    * Assessment is continuous and errors corrected the instant they occur giving you confidence that students are making progress.

    * Students receive consistent daily practice in reading, writing, listening, and speaking

    ****Six levels are available to meet the needs of multiple grade levels.

    This program is costly around $600-$700 each grade level


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    Sound Partners/Sound Partners Plus

    Sound Partners (Vadasy et al., 2004) is a phonics-based tutoring program that provides individual explicit instruction in early reading skills to students who need it most. The program was specifically developed to reduce the number of students identified with reading disabilities by supplementing reading instruction for: first graders at highest risk of reading failure, second and third graders below grade level in reading, and students just learning the English language. Sound Partners is designed to enable teachers/paraeducators/parents to provide effective instruction in the early reading skills most predictive of reading achievement.

    ***Self-contained notebook/set of materials.

    Scripted lessons to ensure correct delivery of instruction

    Relatively inexpensive--about $200 for each--Materials are often free if tutor attends training.


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    Response to Intervention

    CASE STUDY

    • Reason for initial referral to the RtI team was behavior.

    • Secondary need appeared to be academic in nature.

    • Through the RtI process, however, the underlying need was revised.


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    Donald’s Referring Behaviors in Kindergarten:

    • Kindergarten checklists--was at the bottom of the kindergarten class for all kindergarten skills

    • DIBELS benchmark assessments--was in need of strategic instruction at the beginning of kindergarten

    • Could not hold a pencil correctly or form any letters

    • Was has having difficulty with peer relationships. Donald earned 20 office referrals for aggression and received 2 out of school suspensions. Donald would vomit to avoid contact with authority figures. Attending skills were lacking--Donald was blurting almost continually in the classroom.


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    What we did in kindergarten:

    Level 1

    • Talked with parents endlessly!

    • Set up behavior modification program to reinforce positive behaviors

    • Developed a signal to reduce blurting at school and home with teacher, principal, school counselor, educational consultant.

    • Gave parents tips on how to effectively discipline at home.

    • Set up a parent literacy program. Had parents read a story nightly and discuss, had them work on sight words, and reinforcing letters and sounds. (yes, they did it!)

      Level 2

    • In January since Donald was still strategic on benchmark assessments, he was placed in a small group for 30 minutes using Scott-Foresman Early Reading Intervention with a paraeducator.

    • In March, modified Sound Partners was added for 15 additional minutes 3 times weekly to assist Donald in alphabetic principle, as he was still unable to remember letters, sounds, or how to form the letters when writing.


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    What we did in 1st grade:

    Level 2

    • Continued to talk with parents!!

    • School social workers were added. Social worker worked with his parents on parenting/discipline. Parents continued to reinforce literacy skills nightly by having Donald read Sound Partner stories and sight words from 1st grade list as well as Sound Partner sight words.

    • Started the second day of school with Sound Partners everyday for 30 minutes. Monitoring with DIBELS using NWF and ORF (started ORF in September of 1st grade year)

    • Continued behavior modification programs to reinforce positive behaviors.

    • In March, made a referral to Donald’s family physician to rule in/rule out ADHD. Donald was placed on medication. This increased his time on task from 45% to 90%.


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    Donald’s Results:

    • Donald did not receive any office referrals during his first grade year. (Decreased the number of office referrals from 20 the previous year to 0.)

    • Donald’s self-esteem and confidence is evident in all aspects of school and home. Parents report Donald complies and is excited to read/do homework every night.

    • Donald’s classroom teacher reported that Donald was one of the lowest performing students at the beginning of the year and is now one of her top students.

    • Donald scores on all district assessments were proficient or advanced. (Math--91 out of 100 points; Reading--BRI 2nd grade level, Guided Reading level K--mid 2nd grade; Writing--4.2 out of 6.0 scale. Science 22 out of 24 points)

    • Donald finished the Sound Partners program in May 2007. He is no longer in need of RtI services.


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    Donald’s literacy results following intensive intervention

    Kindergarten

    Kindergarten

    Kindergarten

    1st Grade

    1st Grade


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    In God we trust;

    all others must show data

    Author Unknown

    (but made famous by Lester Husted, retired School Psychologist CNSSP)