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Anti-malarial Plants Products of Mali: . Chiaka Diakité Department of Traditional Medicine (DMT) Bamako Nairobi, 20-22 March 2006. Plan of presentation. Introduction Traditional treatment Medicinal plants used for Malaria Reseach,objectives,strategies,results

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Anti-malarial Plants Products of Mali:

Chiaka Diakité

Department of Traditional Medicine (DMT)


Nairobi, 20-22 March 2006

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Plan of presentation

  • Introduction

  • Traditional treatment

  • Medicinal plants used for Malaria

  • Reseach,objectives,strategies,results

  • Economic importance of medicinal plants

  • Conclusion

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  • In Africa 80% of the population uses Traditional Medicine for sociocultural & economic reasons

  • In Mali, poverty exacerbates the difficulties of access to primary health care

  • The majority of the population resorts to Traditional Medicine for treatment of malaria

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Malaria is a public health problem

  • 300 – 500 million clinical cases annually worldwide

  • 1.1-2.7 million deaths each year

  • 28% absenteeism from school

  • 3.5 days of temporary disability per person per year

  • > 2 million USD in direct & indirect costs for malaria in Africa

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In Mali:

  • 1993 – National program to fight against malaria

  • 42% of deaths amongst infants & juveniles

  • Leading cause of mortality (13%)

  • Leading cause of morbidity (15.6%)

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  • For the treatment of malaria poeple self medicate

    - With modern medicines

    - With traditonal medicines

    - A combination of both medicines

  • Treatment at the health center

  • Treatment at the traditional healer clinic

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Traditional Treatment of Malaria

In Traditional Medicine the treatment of malaria is based on the use of prescriptions of plant-based medicines with some animal products

Preparation is by steeping or infusing decoctions of plants & parts of plants in water

The prescription is administered as a drink, as a bath, as a steam bath or as a fumigation

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Some medicinal plants used for malaria in Mali

  • Scientific Names Bamana Names

  • Glinus oppositifolius L. Balassa

  • Vernonia colorata Will. Kô safunè

  • Cassia sieberiana D. C. Sindjan

  • Cochlospermum tinctorium A. N´tiribara

  • Anogeissus leiocarpus D. C.N´galama

  • Combretum glutinosum PerrexTchangara blé

  • Guiera senegalensis J. F.N´kundjè

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Some medicinal plants used for malaria in Mali

Scientific Names Bamana Names

  • Alchornea cordifolia SchumachDunféké

  • Chrosophora senegalensis Lam.Dabada

  • Psorospermum guineense Hochr.Karidjakouma

  • Khaya senegalensis Desr.Djala

  • Trichilia roka Forst.Soulafinzan

  • Acacia senegal L. WilldDonkari

  • Entada africana Guill. Perr.Samanèrè

  • Parkia biglobosa Jacq.Nèrè

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Some medicinal plants used for malaria in Mali

  • Scientific Names Bamana Names

  • Ficus thonnigii Blume Doubalé

  • Oxytenanthera abyssinica Munro Bô

  • Gardenia ternifolia Schum.Bouré tchè

  • Mitragyna inermis Willd.Jun

  • Nauclea latifolia Sm.Baro

  • Fagara zanthoxyloïdes Lam.Wô

  • Lippia chevalieri MoldenkeN´ganiba

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Research by DMT

  • Research into anti-malarial activities of plants

  • The fight against carriers (vectors)

  • The implications for workers in Traditional Medicine in the fight against malaria

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Research Objectives

  • To place at the disposal of the population effective anti-malarial medicines at reduced cost which are based on local products

  • To arrange effective anti-larval medicines that cause little harm to the environment

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Research Strategies

  • Collaboration with traditional therapists

  • Collection of ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants

  • Compilation of medicinal plant bibliographies

  • Laboratory testing & clinical studies

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Research Results

  • ´´ Malarial ´´ is a mixture of 3 plants wich is used against Malaria of Plasmodium falciparum

    - Cassia occidentalis

    - Lippia chevalieri

    - Spilanthes oleracea

  • ´´Argemone.Mexicana ´´is a single plant used against Malaria

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Production of Malarial

  • Table of malarial production at the DMT

  • Period Quantity

  • 2000 -

  • 2001 -

  • 2002 7.913

  • 2003 6.645

  • 2004 4.386

  • 2005 4.715

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Traditional healer and malaria treatment Bandiagara’s Experience

  • 45 healers was formed to the signs and symptoms of uncomplicated and complicated Malaria

  • In ten months 3797 patients were diagnosed

  • 114 were refered to the health center

  • 34 died

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Urban Use of Medicinal Plants Experience

  • Today, despite urbanisation, the population continues to treat itself with medicinal plants

  • However personal use is based upon market supply & demand:

    • Little or no respect for the plants

    • Excessive exploitation

    • Over harvesting

    • Wastage & conservation problems

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The Market for Medicinal Plants Experience

  • Across Malian towns one encounters many sales points for medicinal plants:

    • In the markets

    • Along the main roads

    • Travelling salespersons

    • More & more the sale of medicinal plants is improving & better organised

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The Market for Medicinal Plants Experience

  • Today medicinal plants are sold by:

    1) Herbalists

  • Improved traditional herbalists in the markets of Medine & Hamdallaye

  • Authorised herbalists

    2) Pharmacies

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Plant-based Medicines Experience

  • Medicinal plants are used by:

  • The population for self-medication

  • Traditional health practitioners in the treatment of their patients

  • DMT for the production of enhanced Traditional Medicines

  • Exporters for supply of international markets of herbal medicines

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Economic Importance of Medicinal Plants Experience

  • A study conducted in Burkina Faso estimated the annual consumption per person per annum is about 500g at an approximate cost of 2,200F CFA (Banque mondiale – PROMETRA – Burkina Faso, 2003)

  • This correlates with a city like Bamako, with an annual consumption of about 600 tonnes of medicinal plants at a value of 2,640, 000,000F CFA

  • The world market for traditional plant-based medicines is estimated at 60 million USD

  • (Strategie de l’OMS pour La Medicine Traditionelle 2002-2005)

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Industrial Production of Plant-based Medicines Experience

  • In Mali, the population makes up the principal source of medicinal plants

  • Today, large scale production of plant-based medicines is a compelling obligation to enable fulfilment of the health care needs of the population of Mali & of elsewhere

  • This production ultimately has the ability to lead to significant problems in relation to natural space & the depletion of plant-based medicines

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Regeneration of medicinal plants Experience

Culture of Spilanthes oleracea

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Plant-based Medicines & Biodiversity Experience

  • The results of a study conducted by DMT on ‘Medicinal plants sold in the Bamako markets – conservation & biodiversity’ showed that the scarcity of medicinal plants in nature & the disappearance of certain of these, are among the main causes of the lack of stock of some medicinal plants at Bamako herbalists

  • 30% of rare plants are those frequently used against pathologies associated with ‘Sumaya’ & malaria

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Conclusion Experience

  • For the production & commercialisation of plant-based medicines in Mali it is necessary for:

  • Participative action involving traditional health practitioners, herbalists, researchers, non-government organisations, the private sector & decision-makers

  • Appropriate organisation & regulation

  • The consideration of self & other interests

  • The capture of ideas & experiences of traditional medicine practitioners

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Conclusion Experience

  • The strengthening of experiences such as ‘The International Week of Traditional African Medicine’ (SIMTA) organised by the Malian Federation of traditional therapists & herbalists (FEMBATH) to promote expansion, production & marketing of plant-based medicines in Mali and in Africa

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Thank you Experience