ANTI-AGING PRODUCTS. Alvarez, Maan Damian, Nikki Rodriguez, Rochelle Ann. Introduction. Aging is defined to be the complex process characterized by changes that occurs in the organism throughout the life span whether be it good, bad or neutral ( Hooyman and Kiyak , 2011). Ageist notions.
ANTI-AGING PRODUCTS Alvarez, Maan Damian, Nikki Rodriguez, Rochelle Ann
Introduction Aging is defined to be the complex process characterized by changes that occurs in the organism throughout the life span whether be it good, bad or neutral(Hooyman and Kiyak, 2011).
Ageist notions • Ageism is defined to be the negative associations and connotations attached to the older people. • Older people are typically viewed as “powerless, submissive, etc • “Signs of aging do not naturally concern an individual; such concerns are socially constructed” (Bayer, 2004:7).
Anti-aging creams are predominantly moisturiser-based cosmeceutical skin care products marketed with the promise of making the consumer look younger by reducing, masking or preventing signs of skin aging. • These signs are laxity (sagging), rhytids (wrinkles), and photoaging, which includes erythema (redness), dyspigmentation (brown discolorations), solar elastosis (yellowing), keratoses (abnormal growths), and poor texture. Anti-aging creams may also focus on specific causes of skin aging, such as exposure to the sun.
Facial care is the maintenance of the face and its features such as the skin, lips and eyelashes so that it has an attractive, youthful appearance.
Components of anti-aging skin-care products • Retinol – “ramps up cell turnover in the top layers of the skin, decreasing wrinkles and improving skin tone” • Peptides – chains of amino acids that heals and renews cells • Antioxidants – make skin firmer and more radiant, fights cell damage • Alpha hydroxyl acids (AHAs) – allows the skin to peel away the top layers of the skin erasing fine lines • Exfoliants– removes dead layers of the skin, opens pores and keeps the skin clean Source: Patent Insight Pro, 2010
Anti-aging products are a set of products that often include powdered supplements, skin creams, vitamins, and facial masks. • They are designed to reduce or diminish the effects of aging.
Use of Anti-aging Products • Traditional moisturizers or sunscreens • Facial toning-through electrostimulation of the facial muscles, is thought by some to reduce wrinkles. • Mechanical exfoliation is an alternative to chemical peels using ingredients such as crushed apricot kernals, salt, sponges or brushes.
Disadvantages of using anti-aging products • One study found that the best performing creams reduced wrinkles by less than 10% over 12 weeks, which is not noticeable to the human eye. • Another study found that cheap moisturizers were as effective as high-priced anti-wrinkle creams.
Over-usage of such creams can cause acne, and a dependency can lead to rashes. • The skin can also become thin, over a period, such that blood vessels can be seen”. • Wrinkles develop over time deep below the skin. Since wrinkle creams only impact the top layer, their benefits are mostly short term and superficial.
PHILIPPINES • Anti-aging products remained the second largest category in beauty and personal care in 2013, following hair care. • In 2013, sales reached P31 billion, with sales increasing by 4% in current value terms. • Pond's, Olay Total Effects, AVON products, NIVEA, ALLERGEN, inc.
total estimated population of the Philippines in year 2013 is about 105,720,644
Top Grossers (anti-aging products in the Philippines) L'Oreal Revitalift (10.3%) Olay Total Effects (65.5%) Pond's Age Miracle (13.8%) Avon Anew (10.3%) Source: Cosmopolitan magazine poll (1,500 users of anti-aging products)
L'Oreal Revitalift Anti-Wrinkle + Firming Contour Cream 48ml: 900 php“Because every Filipina is worth it”
OLAY TOTAL EFFECTS “We’re passionate about making a difference in your skin” “Share the secret of a younger looking you” Olay is an American skin care line • It is one of Procter & Gamble's multi-billion dollar brands. • For the 2009 fiscal year ended June 30, Olay accounted for an estimated $2.8 billion of P&G's $79 billion in revenue. • Olay Regenerist was the best performing anti-aging cream in a 2006 test done by a consumer association, outperforming some much more expensive brands.
POND’S • Unilever Philippines, the owner of the leading skin care brand in the country, Pond’s, was the largest player in skin care in the Philippines in 2013. • The company’s sales hit 8.7 billion pesos in 2013 • affordable pricing strategy • Skin care will continue to be an integral component of Filipinas’ beauty regimen, whilst an increasing number of men are also expected to use these products in the forecast period.
Pond's Age Miracle Cell ReGEN Day Cream 50g (700php) • “Unlocking the Secret of Lasting Youth” • Pond’s believes that beautiful skin can be easy to achieve, and affordable. • Philosophy: finding the perfect skin care products doesn’t have to involve hefty price tags, empty promises, or complicated, time-consuming routines.
Global Market for Anti-aging products • The total market for anti-aging products and services was valued at $249.3 billion in 2012. This is expected to increase to nearly $261.9 billion by the end of 2013 and $345.8 billion in 2018, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.7% between 2013 and 2018.
Anti-aging market has evolved over centuries and modern technology has contributed with widening its reach in products, services and devices. • Anti-aging products provide a market which has high adoption as it is comparatively affordable and available than services and devices. • Anti-aging products market is considered to be the largest market in terms of revenue • The technological development and stringent regulations have helped this market to regain trust and belief of customers.
Rest of the world (RoW) • World market for Anti-Aging Products is dominated by the US and Europe, as stated by the recent report published by Global Industry Analysts, Inc. • Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World (RoW) are expected to be the next potential destinations for anti-aging market. • Brazil and Mexico are the major countries from RoW which are leading the anti-aging market. • The developing economy of these regions and awareness about aging signs in men and women has made these regions as future attractive markets for anti-aging.
According to New Report by Global Industry Analysts (2009) : The primal desire of humans to remain young forever so long has groomed and nurtured a goliath of an anti-aging industry worldwide. • Anti-aging products market is traditionally resilient to economic cycles, given consumers' unchanging desire to look young and healthy, and the importance accorded to health, and well-being.
The Anti-aging Trend • Capitalism and Relationship between youth and vitality • An individual’s worth is often measured by his ability to produce. • “In producing themselves as workers, individuals become commodities, and a youthful appearance can increase their exchange value in the job market” (Bayer, 2004:3). • The ability to produce entails high energy levels. • Decline of energy levels occurs at old age. Workers are motivated to resist signs of aging as they believe that showing their youthful appearance is in their best interests.
Consumerism • pursuit of flawless self-image with access to cash • convenience of buying • total credit card debt (anti-aging products worldwide) is now projected at $870 billion • “We revel in our materialism--gleefully indulging ourselves in an orgy of spending around the golden calf of consumerism. Our convenient consumption is fueled by credit, inflamed by advertising, and driven by peer pressure”.
The culture of consumerism is an important contributor in the expanding market for anti-aging products. • We are surrounded by products and advertisements. • This in turn leads us to accept media messages and purchase whichever products they are endorsing to us. • It is physically not possible for most women to conform to such ideals that constitute contemporary beauty (Moxom,2000).
As a result of the growing dissatisfaction to the body image, more products are created - adding new imagery for consumption.
COMMODIFICATION • Love Me: The Cross-Cultural Manufacturing of Beautyby Maria Popova: Women's bodies are often treated as sites of containment, control and oppression (Grosz, 1994). • Braunberger(2000) engages what she labels ‘monster beauty’ - basically an alternative ‘female aesthetic’ in the context of women who are tattooed and esthetically altered, she offers this in relation to existing conventions of feminine beauty which arguably render female bodies as consumer objects. • Naomi Wolf : beauty is a “currency system” - in short both embodied, and commodified - but proceeds to advocate this: “In response, we must now ask the question about our place in our bodies that women a generation ago asked about their place in society” (1990:270).
In studies on the United States and other countries, unrealistic beauty standards are often implicated in low self-esteem and unhealthy behavior among adolescent girls. • the “beauty industry”-consequences of humanity’s unhealthy obsession with “beauty” — eating disorders, plastic surgery addiction, plain old nacrissism and social discrimination • Americans spend more each year on beauty than they do on education. • Beauty is a $160 billion-a-year global industry. The worldwide pursuit of body improvement has become a new religion.
Representation of youth and beauty • Society gives high value for physical appearance. Studies show that there is a positive relationship between attractiveness and better chances of hiring, promotion and romantic relationships. • In our contemporary society, beauty is equated with being young. • Thus, individuals are motivated to retain youth.
MASS MEDIA IMPACT • Mass media is one of the most powerful tools for young girls to learn and also understand about feminine beauty ideals. • mass media uses models to portray a stereotype man-made beauty, which is only at skin level. • the perception of beauty have been pre programmed
The Concept of Beauty in Different Culture : Culture and Beauty
The United States • In U.S. we look to models and celebrities for our standards of beauty. They are usually tall, thin, and elegant. • a common thread in American thinking is that if you weren’t born with beauty, it can be created.
Iran • In the middle-eastern country of Iran, nose-jobs are the ultimate route to beauty—and the ultimate status symbol. Both men and women wear their bandages with pride; in the so-called “nose-job capital of the world” over 70,000 people in this past year alone went under the knife to get a nose-job.
South Korea • In South Korea, the trend is to have wide, round eyes, and many people are going under the knife to achieve them. One in ten women, and even some children, are having an eye-lift to make their eyes more Western and appealing.
France • In France, and other parts of Europe, the desired look is natural beauty. French women are known to be graceful and glamorous at every age, without being too flashy, and often don’t understand the American tendency to use lots of makeup.
Beauty and cosmetics in ancient Egypt • beauty as a sign of holiness. • In tombs, cosmetic palettes were found buried with the deceased as grave goods which further emphasized the idea that cosmetics were not only used for aesthetic purposes but rather magical and religious purposes. • Medical uses of ancient Egyptian cosmetics
“So what is beauty? It is impossible to define because it differs from place to place. What is considered attractive in one country may be undesirable in another. So thin or chunky, smooth or scarred skin, and everything in between, beauty is unique everywhere you look” (Ligon, 2012).
Conclusions • People developed resistance towards aging because of negative notions attached with it. • This attitude of resistance contributed to further capitalism in the context of the growing market for anti-aging products. • Media represents a crucial role in defining the society’s ideals of beauty. In a sense, it already becomes institutionalized. • On a micro level, because people approaching old age is disadvantaged by the young competitors, they need to conform to the society’s standards of beauty.
SOURCES: • Jump up ^ Alexiades-Armenakas MR, et al .J Am AcadDermatol. 2008 May;58(5):719-37; quiz 738-40. • Jump up ^ "Wrinkle creams - Consumer Reports Health". Consumerreports.org. 2011-07-28. Retrieved 2012-02-14. • Jump up ^ "Anti-wrinkle eye creams - Archive - Which? Home & garden". Which.co.uk. 2009-08-20. Retrieved 2012-02-14. • Jump up ^ Smithers, Rebecca (2009-08-20). "One in the eye for anti-wrinkle creams | Money | guardian.co.uk". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-02-14. • Jump up ^ "Anti-aging cosmetic reduced wrinkles in clinical trial". Eurekalert.org. 2009-04-28. Retrieved 2012-02-14. • Jump up ^ "Publications (School of Medicine - University of Manchester)". Medicine.manchester.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-02-14. • Jump up ^ "Drawing a line under men's wrinkles". BBC News Magazine. 2005-04-19. Retrieved 2012-07-18. • Jump up ^ "Archderm.ama-assn.org". Archderm.ama-assn.org. 2007-05-01. doi:10.1001/archderm.143.5.606. Retrieved 2012-02-14. • Jump up ^ Journal of Controlled Release, April 2007, pages 169–176; Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation, March–April 2002, pages 116–125; and Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology, July 1992, pages 604–606 • Jump up ^ Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, January–April 1999, pages 79–84 • Jump up ^ "Sunscreens Explained". SkinCancer.org. Retrieved 2012-02-14. • Bhanoo, Sindya N. "Ancient Egypt's Toxic Makeup Fought Infection, Researchers Say". The New York Times. Published LexisNexis Academic. • Lucas A. "Cosmetics, Perfumes and Incense in Ancient Egypt" The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 16, No. 1/2 (May, 1930), pp. 41–53. Published by: Egypt Exploration Society, Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3854332 • Manniche, Lise. Sacred Luxuries. 1999 Cornell University Press, New York. 127-143. • Spotts, Peter N. "Early cosmetics". Christian Science Monitor (Boston, MA). Published LexisNexis Academic. • Staff "How the Pharaohs Fought Ocular Infection". Review Of Optometry.http://www.revoptom.com/content/d/news_review/i/1018/c/19409/ • "Cosmetic Palette". A History of the World. BBC.co, http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/objects/s-OMbtkESJ6aV6_k6o86oA • "Egyptian Make Up" Published by: King TuT.org, http://www.king-tut.org.uk/ancient-egyptians/egyptian-make-up.htm • "Personal Hygiene and Cosmetics" Published by: reshafim.org, http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/cosmetics.htm • Shaath, Nadim A., ed. 2005. "Sunscreens: Regulations and Commercial Development. Third Edition." ISBN 978-0824757946 • ^ Some notes on the BLACK CULTURAL MOVEMENT • ^ Jamaica Says Black Is Beautiful • Jump up^ Key Issues in Postcolonial Feminism: A Western Perspective by Chris Weedon, Cardiff UniversityIn her novel The Bluest Eye (1970), Toni Morrison depicts the effects of the legacy of 19th century racism for poor black people in the United States. The novel tells of how the daughter of a poor black family, Pecola Breedlove, internalizes white standards of beauty to the point where she goes mad. Her fervent wish for blue eyes comes to stand for her wish to escape the poor, unloving, racist environment in which she lives. • Jump up^ "Black is Beautiful" and the Color Preferences of Afro-American Youth - Claud Anderson, Rue L. Cromwell, The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 46, No. 1 (Winter, 1977), pp. 76-88 doi:10.2307/2966874 • Bayer, K. (2004). The Anti-aging Trend: Capitalism, Cosmetics and Mirroring the Spectacle. Available at www.gnocis.georgetown.edu.