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The Civil War

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  1. The Civil War

  2. Fort Sumter • Lincoln was in a difficult position -Remove-giving in to their demands -Attack-North would be viewed as the aggressor • Ultimately decides to send supplies, but not additional soldiers • April 12, 1861-South Carolinians opened fire on Fort Sumter

  3. Border States • Border States: Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, MD, Delaware • -if North had fired first shot, border states might have seceded • Lincoln hoped to have God on his side, but needed to have Kentucky

  4. Map of the U.S. 1861

  5. South Defensive war Know the terrain Strong generals Rebel yell North More people Industrialization Railroads Southern v. Northern Advantages

  6. Anaconda Plan Three Part Plan • Capture Richmond (capital of the Confederacy) • Gain control of the Mississippi River to split the South in half • Blockade Southern ports

  7. Relations with Britain • Trent affair-British ship with Confederate diplomats on board-Union forcibly removed the rebels—imprisoned but ultimately released, due to the outrage from the British over Americans seizing one of their ships • Alabama-built in Britain for the Confederates, which captured 60 Union ships, destroyed off the coast of France in 1864 • -1872-British paid damages of 15.5 million for problems caused by Alabama • Aside from this, Britain stays out—had accumulated a surplus of cotton, and had alternative markets (Egypt and India), and emancipation issue

  8. Lincoln and Civil Liberties • Proclaimed a blockade w/o Congressional approval • Suspended the writ of habeas corpus to arrest copperheads-held w/o telling why • Limited freedom of speech and press in border states • Troops monitor voting in border states (colored ballot) walk between lines of armed soldiers

  9. “A Rich Man’s War…” • Could pay $300 to avoid service • NYC Draft Riots of 1863-lynching, led by Irish Americans • After exhausted volunteers, began to pay up to $1000 for service • Confederates-draft in 1862 ages 17-50 • Slaveowners or overseers w/ 20 or more slaves could claim exemption

  10. Northern Economy during the War • Morrill Tariff Act-raised taxes from 5-10%-needed for revenue to support war effort • Printed greenbacks, not sufficiently supported by gold (value fluctuated based upon how the Union army was doing)

  11. National Banking Act • National Banking System (1863)—sell gov’t bonds, establish standard currency-first step toward a unified banking system since 1836, later replaced by the Federal Reserve Act of 1913

  12. Economy of the Confederacy • Confederates also printed paper money, which was only worth 1.6 cents when Lee surrendered—whole war resulted in a 9000 percent inflation rate for South, 80 percent inflation rate for Union

  13. Millionaires from War • -for the first time, Civil War led to a millionaire class-many made money at gov’ts expense—JP Morgan, faulty equipment, disintegrating uniforms

  14. Battle of Bull Run • Women and children brought picnic baskets • Led by Stonewall Jackson, the South won-fed into their overconfidence • Union realized the war would not be as quick as expected

  15. General George McClellan • Good rapport with his soldiers, but too cautious • Fired by Lincoln after the Battle of Antietam

  16. Antietam • Antietam Creek, Maryland (Sept. 17, 1862) bloodiest single day in the Civil War • Even though it was a military draw, it was significant in that it kept Britain and France out of the war • Gave Lincoln the “victory” to issue his Emancipation Proclamation Some of the Confederate Casualties

  17. Emancipation Proclamation Key Concerns: • Border States • Keeping England out of the war • Angered those in Border States- key issue became slavery • Point of no return for Southerners

  18. "Lincoln Freed Slaves Where he COULDN'T and WOULDN'T Where he COULD."

  19. Life during the Civil War • Southerners faced many challenges • Food shortage due to Union blockade • So many men were fighting • Union occupation • Many of the slaves left, and they had difficulty getting farm work done

  20. Life in the North • Corruption in business • Morgan and the rifles • 1863-North imposed the first income tax in American History • Based upon a percentage of a person’s income • Abandoned (temporarily anyway) in 1872

  21. Not so fine dining for soldiers on both sides North-beans, bacon, pickled beef and hard tack (pictured at right) -said that hard tack was hard enough to stop a bullet Southerners ate cush-which was stewed beef, cornbread and bacon grease The delectable hard tack

  22. Gettysburg • Lee was forced to go into battle w/o Stonewall Jackson, who was shot by own men and died of pneumonia • Lee’s 76,000 men met with Meade’s 92,000 • Pickett’s Charge—charged up the hill that had heavy artillery—would appear to be a suicide mission, but not as crazy as might seem to be • Farthest North Lee would ever advance

  23. The Wheatfield The 19 acre field of wheat changed hands between the North and South six times. Veterans compared it to a whirlpool. Swept up in the intense fighting, over 6,000 men were killed, wounded, or captured in the field and surrounding woods. Today Devil’s Den, the Peach Orchard, and the Wheatfield are synonymous with absolute destruction. The Wheatfield, when measured by square footage, is arguably the bloodiest acreage at Gettysburg, possibly all of the Americas!

  24. Grant and the West • Unconditional surrender • Aided by David Farragut’s control of New Orleans • Vicksburg—last major holdout on the Mississippi River • People stayed in caves and ate rats and dogs to stay alive • Fell July 4, 1863, just ONE day after Gettysburg

  25. Sherman’s March • Grant and Sherman-proponents of “total war” • Sherman started in Georgia and marched north • Left a path of destruction, but eased up when they reached North Carolina • Actions were most punitive in South Carolina

  26. Election of 1864 • GOP joined with War Democrats in the North—called themselves the Union Party, ran w/ Andrew Johnson a War Democrat from TN who had owned slaves-attract voters in Border States, Dems nominated George McClellan • “Don’t swap horses in the middle of the river” • When Farragut captured Mobile, AL “Damn the torpedoes!” and Sherman seized Atlanta, tipped the balance in Lincoln’s favor

  27. Grant’s Tactics • Grant able to defeat Lee, because he had the men at his disposal—went to the front lines w/ names and addresses pinned on their backs • -unconditional surrender, after troops captured Richmond in April 1865, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865

  28. Lincoln’s Assassination • April 14, 1865, Good Friday Lincoln was shot at Ford’s Theater by John Wilkes Booth

  29. Aftermath of the Civil War • 600,000 men died, over 1 million killed or wounded • War costs- $15 Billion • End of secession or nullification as serious considerations