Differences in Solubility - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Differences in Solubility

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  1. Differences in Solubility Conditions of Solubility Miscible vs. Immiscible Colligative Properties

  2. Why are there differences in solubility? • General Rule = Like Dissolves Like • What makes substances similar or alike? • CASE #1: Types of bonds • CASE #2: Polarity • CASE #3: Type of intermolecular force

  3. CASE #1 : TYPES OF BONDING • EX. Salt (NaCl) + water (H2O) • Ionic compounds dissolve in aqueous solutions via a process called hydration.

  4. CASE #2: POLARITY • EX. Water + Animal Fat • Salt (NaCl) + Vegetable Oil • LiCl + C6H5CH3 (Toluene)

  5. CASE #3: TYPE OF IMF • MISCIBLE = dissolve in each other at all proportions, have similar IMFs • solvent considered to be substance present in larger amount • EX. alcohol + water • IMMISCIBLE = substances do NOT dissolve in each other at all proportions, do not have similar IMFs • EX. water + oil Italian Salad Dressing

  6. What are colligative properties? • Properties that depend on number of solute particles in a solution or concentration

  7. VAPOR PRESSURE DECREASES • If you increase the concentration, the vapor pressure is the pressure above the liquid in a closed container • As # of solute particles increases, they attract molecules of solvent and hold solvent particles in solution (Prevent Escape!)

  8. BOILING POINT INCREASES • Boiling Point is the Temperature where atm pressure = vapor pressure. • As # of solute particles increase, vapor pressure decreases thus it will take more energy to raise the vapor pressure back to equilibrium with atm pressure.

  9. FREEZING POINT DECREASES • Adding solute to solvent lowers the normal freezing point. • Solute interferes with formation of solid crystals. • In order to freeze molecules must be attracted to each other (clump/cluster together) and if solute molecules are in the path, solvent particles can’t clump.

  10. Why do we apply salt to roadways/walkways in the winter? • LOWERS FREEZING POINT! We use salt solutions involving NaCl and CaCl.

  11. Why do we apply salt to roadways/walkways in the winter? • LOWERS FREEZING POINT!