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UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves. SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves. SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals form. Solubility. increasing concentration. gases. solids. Solubility Table. Solubility vs. Temperature for Solids. 140.

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  1. UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals form Solubility increasing concentration

  2. gases solids Solubility Table Solubility vs. Temperature for Solids 140 KI 130 120 NaNO3 110 100 KNO3 90 80 HCl NH4Cl • shows the dependence • of solubility on temperature 70 Solubility (grams of solute/100 g H2O) 60 NH3 KCl 50 40 30 NaCl KClO3 20 10 SO2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World , 1996, page 517

  3. Solubility • Solubility • maximum grams of solute that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature • varies with temperature • based on a saturated solution

  4. Solubility • Solids are more soluble at... • high temperatures. • Gases are more soluble at... • low temperatures & • high pressures (Henry’s Law). • EX: nitrogen narcosis, the “bends,” soda

  5. KNO3 (s) KCl (s) Solubility (g/100 g H2O) HCl (g) Temp. (oC) Solubilityhow much solute dissolves in a given amt. of solvent at a given temp. SOLUBILITY CURVE unsaturated: solution could hold more solute; below line saturated: solution has “just right” amt. of solute; on line supersaturated: solution has “too much” solute dissolved in it; above the line

  6. Sol. Sol. To To Solids dissolved in liquids Gases dissolved in liquids As To , solubility As To , solubility

  7. Classify as unsaturated, saturated, or supersaturated. per 100 g H2O 80 g NaNO3 @ 30oC unsaturated 45 g KCl @ 60oC saturated 50 g NH3 @ 10oC unsaturated 70 g NH4Cl @ 70oC supersaturated Per 500 g H2O, 120 g KNO3 @ 40oC saturation point @ 40oC for 100 g H2O = 66 g KNO3 So sat. pt. @ 40oC for 500 g H2O = 5 x 66 g = 330 g 120 g < 330 g unsaturated

  8. Describe each situation below. (A) Per 100 g H2O, 100 g Unsaturated; all solute NaNO3 @ 50oC. dissolves; clear solution. (B) Cool solution (A) very Supersaturated; extra slowly to 10oC. solute remains in solution; still clear. (C) Quench solution (A) in Saturated; extra solute an ice bath to 10oC. (20 g) can’t remain in solution, becomes visible.

  9. Hotpack / Coldpack

  10. Solubility of Sodium Acetate 150 Saturated Supersaturated solution Video Clip 100 Solubility(g/100 g H2O) Unsaturated solution 50 0 The small crystal causes extensive crystallization, and eventually A single crystal of sodium acetate, NaC2H3O2, is dropped into a supersatureated solution 25 50 75 100 the solute forms a solid mass of NaC2H3O2. Temperature (oC) Charles H.Corwin, Introductory Chemistry 2005, page 378

  11. Vitamins • Multi Vitamin • Provides many essential vitamins • “Expensive urine” • Water Soluble • Vitamin C • Must be replenished regularly • Fat Soluble • Can overdose • Vitamin A • Can be ingested periodically, stored in body fat

  12. Gas, Liquid, and Solid Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 441

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