Development of urban form on the flood prone in Thailand; the case of Chao Phraya River Basin Thongchai Roachanakanan, PhD Office of Climate Change Convention Ministry of Interior
Key Words • Changes • Fragile and Vulnerable • Floodplain, Flood Risk Prone • Natural Environment and Built Environment • Cultural Environment & Touristic Urbanism • Climate Change and Urban Disaster • Adaptation and Mitigation • Urban Climate Resilience
Understand the natural environment and changes • A primary domain of tropical monsoon region is long period of raining season in association with a number of storms; typhoon and cyclone. • By the end of 19th century around 90% of the region was covered with tropical rain forest and a great variety of ecological systems. • Today only 25-30% of tropical rain forest still remain as a consequence of rapid deforestation. • Climate change and its impacts have become issues since the 1990s after natural disasters were obvious.
Thai Society and Water-bound Settlements • For centuries Thai society has lived in harmony with nature on the floodplain. • Water-bound settlements were significant. • Modernization in the 20th gradually changed urban forms in the region.
House on stilts has been a typical form; functional human adjustment to flood.
The same principle and similar form can be seen in the southeast Asia; Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam.
Urban forms have changed gradually since the early 19th century; according to western influences.Roads in Bangkok were only 12 km. long totally.
Starting deterioration of upstream natural environmentthe northern railway development and logging industry
King Rama V opened Rangsit irrigation project on 18 November 1896 adopt policy on increasing rice production; the main income of the kingdom.
In 1888 it was described that no settlement was found on the north and east of Bangkok.Homan Hiede, a Dutch engineerproposeda network of irrigation canal on the central plain north of Bangkok in 1910.
Rangsit was a popular area for the westerners in the 1900s, built vacation houses.
Urban forms were influenced by the west, from Singapore to Phuket and Bangkok.
A few floating houses are functional on the river but many have disappeared. People move to city and town.
Entertainment; amazing Thailand!!!New cultural environment???
Cultural environment is collection of social values and local heritages.
Once upon a time, Thai society was significant in terms of unity, extended family and sense of belonging.
New urban form!!!as a dream of young generation; struggle for convenient life in the city
Global warming has become international issue since 1992; impacts of climate change.