Warm Up: What should be the title for each column?. Loyalists (Tories). Patriots (Rebels). Are These people Patriots or Loyalists?. Are These people Patriots or Loyalists?
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Warm Up: What should be the title for each column? Loyalists (Tories) Patriots (Rebels)
Are These people Patriots or Loyalists? • Are These people Patriots or Loyalists? • After a public reading of the D.O.I. on July 9, 1776 in New York City, Patriots pulled down a 4000lb. statue of the King of England, cut it into pieces, melted it down & made 42,088 bullets! 8.30C kingsacademy.com
1775-1783 The REVOLUTIONARY WAR
An Army is Formed • After Lexington & Concord, militia began gathering around Boston (20,000) • General Gage is in Boston with his redcoats • Delegates at Second Continental Congress decide to form Continental Army (Patriot Regulars) with George Washington as its commanding General • This congress also authorized money to be printed to pay the troops
Life on the Home Front • Changing Attitudes- Equality and Freedom were being widely discussed and issues such as Women’s rights and Slavery were debated. • Treatment of Loyalists- Many loyalists (tories) fled, those that stayed behind faced much discrimination. • Republicanism- A culture of Republicanism develops as people become more and more involved in their government. Virtue and civic duty become very important.
Abigail Adams • Abigail encouraged her husband, John Adams, to “remember the ladies.” when creating the new continental government. She was a proud Patriot and influential supporter of liberty and women’s rights.
An American Poet, historian, and dramatist whose brother James Otis was an important activist in the American Revolution. She wrote a play in 1773 that foretold of the coming American Revolution. She also wrote a play called The Group that targeted and made fun of Tories. She wrote many articles that asked women to support the war. She was a friend of Abigail Adams, another women’s right activist. Mercy Otis Warren did not support the new Constitution because it did not give Women equal rights. Mercy Otis Warren
Battle of Bunker Hill • Militiamen take Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill behind Charlestown and build fortifications • June 17, 1775: General William Howe (British) decides to take back the hills • The redcoats lined up and attacked the hill • Colonel William Prescott: “Don't fire until you see the white of their eyes!” • Redcoats finally win the hill -but at a terrible cost: 1000 redcoats to 400 militia
Olive Branch Petition • Most colonists still wanted peace • In July 1775, Continental Congress writes an “Olive Branch Petition” and sends to King George asking to restore peace • King doesn't even look at petition, instead orders navy to block colonial ships from leaving ports and sends Hessian soldiers in to help fight Americans • “When once these rebels have felt a smart blow, they will submit!” • Americans under Benedict Arnold try to take Quebec, but fail under a miserable winter
Americans Take Back Boston • Green Mountain Boys bring 59 cannons in to support Washington in Boston • Washington moves to Dorchester Heights, overlooking Boston • General Howe (British) decides to withdraw troops from Boston • 1000 Loyalists go with him, those left behind suffered their homes and property being seized and some abuse
Thomas Paine Publishes “Common Sense” It all started with “Common Sense,” the writing that sparked a revolution. Best selling work by an American author up to that point. (only the Bible was read by more people) George Washington ordered this pamphlet distributed to his troops.
Declaration of Independence • John Hancock, president of congress, was first to sign • Based on philosophy of John Locke, an Enlightenment leader and Locke's beliefs of “unalienable rights” • Explained reasons for breaking free from England and declared colonies to be free and independent states • Treason! If war lost, then delegates would be hanged
Unalienable Rights • “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” • “people”= free white men • If govt does not protect these rights, then people have right to abolish that govt
Americans are still Divided • 20-30% Loyalists • 40-45% Patriots • Most did not support War • New England and Virginia had most Patriots • New York State, Large Cities, and South had more Loyalists • Native American groups divided • African Slaves were also divided, England promised freedom if they joined, but 5000 joined the Colonial armies and hoped that it might bring them freedom
Which of these groups would be on the side of the Loyalists,Patriots,or Neutrals?Number 1-10 & Write a L, P or N • __1.Small farmers • __2.Merchants/Traders • __3.Southern Slaves • __4.Quakers • __5.Free African-Americans • __6.Artisans • __7.Frontiersmen • __8.Working Class • __9.Native Americans • __10.Plantation owners Loyalists thought their Rebellion was Illegal, immoral & outrageous Neutrals Either were pacifists, Flip-flopped (depending On who was winning) Or they didn’t care Patriots thought their rebellion was necessary & heroic
Creating an Army • At first formed out of untrained, undisciplined militias • Enlistments were short • Congress could not raise enough money to supply the army • Women helped by following men and working in camps. Some women dressed as men and fought. Mary Hays earned nickname “Molly Pitcher” for carrying water to men in middle of battles • Because Washington never had a large, well-trained army his strategy was to win small decisive battles
War in the Middle Colonies • By using the coastal cities of the middle colonies, the British believed that they could bring in troops and supplies to launch military campaigns (battles) and very quickly defeat the American militia. • General William Howe (leader of the British military) also hoped to divide the colonies in half by taking New York.
Battle of New York CityJuly 1776 (p.179) • Gen. William Howe lands 10,000 British soldiers on Staten Island and is soon joined by 24,000 more –including 9,000 Hessians. • General Washington was head-quartered on Manhattan Island. • Months of fighting between the Colonial Army and the British army ensued. • Finally, during a heavy fog, General Howe forced Washington to make a daring retreat across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania
Defeat • The American Army was in bad shape by this time. No food, inadequate clothing, no weapons, and lots of diseases. • The troops were demoralized and at numbers near 3,000 –they wear near desertion.
“The American Crisis” • Washington asks Thomas Paine, now a soldier in the American Army, to read his newest essay “The American Crisis” to the troops • The American Crisis: “These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country. But he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.” • The soldiers’ spirits revived! It was a morale victory, but Washington needed a military victory as well. He had a brilliant idea…
Battle of TrentonDecember 25, 1776 • On Christmas night, 1776, through a blinding sleet storm, Washington ferried 2400 troops back across the ice-clogged Delaware River. • The freezing troops then marched 9 miles to Trenton, New Jersey, surprising the sleeping British soldiers who had just finished celebrating Christmas. The Americans defeated the British in just 45 minutes and took some much needed supplies.
Battle of PrincetonJanuary 3,1777 • British General Cornwallis marched south to retake Trenton from Washington. Exhausted, he refused to attack Washington the night he arrived. • Meanwhile, Washington sees him coming, orders his men to leave their campfires burning and sneak through the night to the rear of Cornwallis. • The next morning Washington led a victorious attack on Cornwallis’ rearguard.
Victory! • By winning these two battles in New Jersey, General Washington’s Army gained many new recruits. • The nation cheered him as a hero!
War in the North • The British had a goal to seize the Hudson River Valley and cut off New England from the rest of the colonies. • General John Burgoyne would leave from Canada and travel south; Lt. Col. Barry St. Leger would march his troops from Lake Ontario to the Mohawk Valley; and General William Howe would follow the Hudson River North from New York City.
Benedict Arnold’s TrickSummer 1777 • American, Benedict Arnold was asked to lead a group of soldiers up the Mohawk Valley to chase the British out of New York. After he captured a few loyalists and Iroquis Benedict Arnold used the captured soldiers to spread the rumor that the American soldiers had recruited a huge number of soldiers and would easily defeat the British. • The trick worked!!! St. Leger’s troops retreated so quickly that they left behind tents, cannons, and supplies!
General John Burgoyne Travels to SaratogaSummer 1777 (p.181) • Known as “Gentleman Johnny” General John Burgoyne began traveling south from Canada towards Albany, NY. • The General enjoyed traveling slowly through the countryside and taking time to celebrate his victories in battle. This allowed the Americans plenty of time to cut down trees to block his march. • It took the British 4 long weeks just to finally reach the Hudson River.
Battle of SaratogaOct 17, 1777 • General Burgoyne and his troops were surprised to meet the Continental Army near Saratoga, New York. • The Americans had built earthen walls that General Burgoyne had to break down in order to proceed to Albany. • Benedict Arnold led American charges against the British until Burgoyne finally surrendered 5,000 men and several Generals.
Results of These Battles • The American Victory at Saratoga was a turning point. France and Spain realized that the colonists could win the war and decided to help them with soldiers, supplies, and money. (French motivation: land lost during the French and Indian war) Benjamin Franklin represented the Americans as an envoy in France. He worked tirelessly to gain French support Benedict Arnold believed that he was not being adequately rewarded for his wins and heroic actions. In 1780 he turned traitor when he agreed to turn over an American fort but the plot was discovered before it could be carried out. Benedict Arnold was forced to flee the country.
French-American Alliance 1778 • A French-American Alliance, negotiated by Benjamin Franklin, was crucial to America’s victory in 1783. • Britain responded by declaring war on France in 1778. • Spain, who was an ally of France, declared war on Britain in 1779, then captured Pensacola, Florida from the British. • Haym Salomon- Jewish immigrant to America, he worked tirelessly to gain financial support for the American cause. He was arrested by the British for being a spy, then helped other prisoners escape and British soldiers to desert.
Valley ForgeWinter 1778 • Washington’s troops wintered in bitterly cold Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. • Baron Friedrich von Steuben, a Prussian volunteer who spoke little to no English, drilled the soldiers all winter, frustrated that they couldn’t understand his German swearing. • He turned them into professionals, and his drill book became standard in the army.
The War in the South • After losing several major battles in the North, the British turned their attention to the Southern colonies because they thought that they would get more loyalist support there. • The British promised freedom to the enslaved Africans who joined them as soldiers, and wanted to use the southern seaports to bring in more soldiers from the British West Indies.
Siege of Charlestown1780 • British Army General Henry Clinton landed in South Carolina and trapped the American Army at Charlestown. • Almost 5,000 American troops surrendered, which was the worst American defeat of the war!
Battle of CamdenAug 1780 • After putting together a new army, General Gates headed south to Camden, South Carolina to challenge the British forces under the leadership of General (Lord) Cornwallis. • On the way, he met Francis Marion (also known as the “Swamp Fox”) who gave him important information about the coastal swamplands. • Aug 1780 General Gates’ army ran into British troops outside Camden. The Americans were in dire straits –no supplies, half-starved and inexperienced. • When the British attacked, the American militia panicked and ran! This second defeat ended Gates’ leadership of the American army and caused the spirits of the colonists to fall.
The “Swamp Fox” and Guerrilla Warfare • The cunning “Swamp Fox” heardabout the American army’s defeat at Camden and knew that the prisoners were being marched toCharles Town. He used guerrilla warfare to overwhelm the British forces and free the American prisoners. • General Washington appointed Nathaniel Greene to command the army in the south. • Greene’s new plan: to avoid full-scale battle and make the British chase the Americans around the countryside while militia picked them off with guerrilla warfare tactics.
War on the Frontier & SeaSpanish Help • After Spain agreed to join the war on the American Side, it immediately seized the British strongholds of Natchez, Baton Rouge Louisiana. Then Mobile, Alabama and Pensacola, Florida. These victories prevented the British from attacking the U.S. from the southwest. It also caused the British to overextend their forces to try and battle the French and Spanish forces along with the American forces. • Bernardo de Galvez- Spanish nobleman who became Governor of Spanish Louisiana, he protected American ships in New Orleans andsent war supplies to the Continental Armies
War on the Frontier & SeaFrench Help –Marquis de Lafayette • Help from the Europeans also included leaders in the military. The Marquis de Lafayette was a 19 year old French nobleman who volunteered to serve because hebelieved in the American cause. • His soldiers loved him because he understood their hardships. He also used his own money to buy clothes, weapons and food for his troops. • The Marquis de Lafayette used his influence to persuade the King of France to send 6,000 troops to help the Americans.
James Armistead • An African American spy during the American Revolution. Born as a slave, he volunteered to join the army. He was able to successfully infiltrate General Cornwallis’ headquarters posing as a runaway slave. Armistead was able to send many messages to General Washington informing him to the whereabouts and plans of the British armies.
War on the Frontier & SeaThe “Frontiersmen” • Many “frontiersmen,” or men who lived west of the Appalachian Mountains, also accepted the Continental Congress’ call to arms. • In 1777, George Rogers Clark received permission to raise an army to capture British posts on the Western Frontier. • May 1778: Clark & his group captured Fort Kaskaskia on the Mississippi River and then moved east to take control of Fort Sackville. The following year, the British recaptured Fort Sackville and Clark decided to take it away from the British for a second (and last!) time. • By catching the British by surprise, Clark was easily able to overtake the fort. • This Victory gave the Americans control of the land from the Great Lakes to the Ohio River Valley.
War on the Frontier & SeaWar at Sea • BY 1777, Britain had over 100 warships off the American coast, controlling the Atlantic trade routes. • To help the Americans, Privateers attacked and captured British supply ships! The cargo would be sold and the monies split between the crewmembers and the country. • Their were more than 1,000 privateers and they were able to effectively disrupt the Atlantic trade to the point that the British merchants wanted an end to the war (and privateering!) • One of the most famous Continental Navy officers was John Paul Jones. In 1779 he captained the Bonhomme Richard and, along with four other ships, approached several British supply ships. During the fight, John Paul Jones coined the phrase “I have not yet begun to fight!” Jones successfully defeated the British warships, which angered the British who believed that they had the best navy in the world.
Timeline of Events • Late 1780 –Early 1781: American riflemen won at the Battle of King’s Mountain and the Battle of Cowpens, setting up the American troops for the upcoming battle at Yorktown. Problems in the colonies –inflation, bankruptcy in the government.
Yorktown • July, 1781: British General Lord Cornwallis set up his base at Yorktown, Virginia. This was a key location because he could receive supplies from New York and it was located on a peninsula which he thought would be an easy place to defend against the American militia. • General Washington, on the other hand, saw this as the “Golden Opportunity” to defeat the British…
The Battle of Yorktown • A French fleet blocked the Chesapeake Bay and stopped the British from receiving supplies and from escaping. • The Americans came up from the north and trapped Lord Cornwallis on the peninsula.
Order of Battles Let’s Start Yelling! • Lexington • Saratoga • Yorktown