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Accountability Movement and the Standardization of Education: Resistance is Futile EDU 6629 The Master Teacher
“Our Nation is at risk. Our once unchallenged preeminence in commerce, industry, science, and technological innovation is being overtaken by competitors throughout the world. …the educational foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity that threatens our very future as a Nation and a people….If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war.” Source: A Nation at Risk Report, 1983
Origins of the Accountability Movement • What societal conditions paved the way for the Accountability Movement? • What are the major accountability milestones? • Why must schools be accountable? • Why standardize education?
Watergate Scandal 1972-74 Accountability Timeline Double Digit Inflation 1977 Sputnik October 1957 Civil Rights Act 1964 Vietnam War Oil Embargo 1973 Iran Hostage Crisis 1979 Kennedy1960-63 Johnson 1963-68 Nixon 1968-74 Ford 1974-76 Carter 1976-80 National Defense Education Act 1958 Johnson’s War on Poverty ESEA 1965 Dept. of Education October 1979 First Wave
Accountability Timeline Gulf War II 2003 Fall of Berlin Wall Gulf War I 1991 Fall of Communism 1989 Bosnian War 1992 Reagan 1980-88 Bush 1988-92 Clinton 1992-00 Bush 2000-08 Sandia Report 1993 A Nation At Risk 1983 America 2000 An Educational Strategy 1991 Goals 2000 Educate America Act, 1994 No Child Left Behind 2002 Second Wave Third Wave
Accountability Movement • First Wave • 1958 National Defense Education Act • Brought federal appropriations to • increase number of students studying math, science and foreign languages • Improve curriculum • Precipitated by Sputnik Launch • US had fallen behind in space race
Accountability Movement • Second Wave • 1983, A Nation At Risk Report • Blue Ribbon Panel brought recommendations for the reform of Public Education • Precipitated by economic crisis in America • 1991, America 2000 • Not a federal program • Strategy-identifying 6 goals to be implemented in 9 yrs. • Goals were articulated at the 1989 Education Summit, Charlottesville, VA
America 2000 • By the year 2000 • Goal #1 All children in America will start school ready to learn. • Goal #2 High School graduation rate will increase to 90% • Goal #3 Studentswill leave grades 4,8,12 demonstrating competency in challenging subject matter. Includes English, science, math, history, geography • Goal #4 US students will be first in world in science and math achievement • Goal #5 Every adult in America will be literate and possess knowledge and skills to compete in global economy • Goal #6 Every school will be free of drugs and violence and offer an environment conducive to learning.
Goals 2000 • Federal law PL 103-227 • Essentially subsumes America 2000 and adds 2 additional goals • It mandates the goals • Stipulates state actions to meet the goals • The stipulations were largely voluntary • Example: states were to develop standards for student achievement. But they were not required to meet the standards. • Example: states were to develop rigorous courses of study
Goals 2000 • Goal #1 All children in America will start school ready to learn. • Goal #2 High School graduation rate will increase to 90% • Goal #3 Studentswill leave grades 4,8,12 demonstrating competency in challenging subject matter. Includes English, science, math, history, geography • Goal #4 the Nation's teaching force will have access to programs for the continued improvement of their professional skills and the opportunity to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to instruct and prepare all American students for the next century. • Goal #5 US students will be first in world in science and math achievement • Goal #6 Every adult in America will be literate and possess knowledge and skills to compete in global economy • Goal #7 every school in the United States will be free of drugs, violence, and the unauthorized presence of firearms and alcohol and will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning. • Goal #8 every school will promote partnerships that will increase parental involvement and participation in promoting the social, emotional, and academic growth of children New New
No Child Left Behind • Federal Law, PL 107-110 • Re-authorizes Elementary and Secondary Education Act • Sets, for first time, punitive measures for states that do not comply • Loss of federal funding • Mandates compliance • States must demonstrate increased student achievement
NCLB • Rests on 4 Basic Principles • Stronger Accountability for results • Increased flexibility and local control • Expanded options for parents • Emphasis on teaching methods that have been proven to work
Accountability for Results • States must establish strong academic standards for what every child should know and learn • Tests must measure the standards • Results must be published • Results disaggregated by student group • Schools responsible for improvement
Flexibility • States are going to have greater control of how federal dollars can be used. • Local Education Agencies will be able direct funds to programs that they think will help the most
Proven Programs • Education dollars will be targeted towards scientifically-based research programs
Parental Options • Parental involvement mandated • Parents will have options to transfer their children from failing schools • Schools must provide supplemental education services to students in failing schools
Why Must Schools Be Held Accountable? • Students have graduated without being able to read. • Social promotions • Societal loss of confidence • Philosophic push towards objective measures as only acceptable proof of quality (learning) • Someone must be accountable-we dare not hold parents accountable!
Why Standardize Education • Ensures that all children receive a comparable education. • Establishes a floor-threshold • Measurable • In theory, allows for comparison within the state and between states • Required by law