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Classification of pension systems in the EU AIM Work Package 2. Cok Vrooman A comparative typology of pension regimes , A. Soede & C. Vrooman (2008) Enepri Research Report No. 54, www.enepri.org , www.ceps.eu. Research questions.

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classification of pension systems in the eu aim work package 2

Classification of pension systems in the EUAIM Work Package 2

Cok Vrooman

A comparative typology of pension regimes, A. Soede & C. Vrooman (2008)

Enepri Research Report No. 54, www.enepri.org, www.ceps.eu

research questions
Research questions
  • Can the various pension systems in the European Union, the US, Canada, Australia and Norway empirically be reduced to a limited number of pension regime types?
  • Do pension regime types correspond with Esping-Andersen’s more general typology of welfare regimes (SD, LIB, CORP)?
  • Is there a connection between pension regime types and:

a) the future ageing process?

b) recent differences in pension reforms (path dependency)?

How to make European pensions adequate and sustainable? Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, October 20, 2008

regimes methodology
Regimes/methodology

Regimes:

Diverging types of coherent systems of formal rules which aim to achieve distinct collective goals.

Categorical principal components analysis (CatPCA):

Institutional data for 34 pension scheme traits (pension level/wealth, organisation/structure, retirement age) in 23 countries

Optimal scaling of both countries and pension scheme traits

on a limited number of uncorrelated underlying dimensions

Empirical pension regime typology:

country clusters with diverging scores on interpretable dimensions?

How to make European pensions adequate and sustainable? Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, October 20, 2008

a previous mixed typology of social security and pensions 2004
A previous ‘mixed’ typology ofsocial security and pensions, 2004

Scaling of 23

countries

Based on 85 traits

of social security,

pensions and labor

market

Source:

Soede, Vrooman, Ferraresi

& Segre (2004)

How to make European pensions adequate and sustainable? Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, October 20, 2008

the pension typology component loadings
The pension typology: component loadings

Scaling of 34 traits

of pension systems

Based on

23 countries

Source:

Soede & Vrooman (2008)

How to make European pensions adequate and sustainable?

Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, October 20, 2008

the pension typology country scores
The pension typology:country scores

Scaling of 23

countries

Based on 34 traits

of pension systems

Source:

Soede & Vrooman (2008)

How to make European pensions adequate and sustainable?

Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, October 20, 2008

relationship with future ageing process
Relationship with future ageing process

How to make European pensions adequate and sustainable? Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, October 20, 2008

relationship with recent policy reforms 1990 2005
Relationship with recent policy reforms(1990-2005)

How to make European pensions adequate and sustainable? Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, October 20, 2008

conclusions
Conclusions

Pension systems in the EU c.a. can be reduced to a limited number of pension regime types.

But: no complete correspondence with theoretical Esping-Andersen classification (only liberal, corporatist). Pension regimes are not to be equated with the welfare regimes which provide for the non-elderly.

Regime types face different demographic challenges, e.g. corporatist group (already aged, high ageing >2025)

Pension reforms tend to be path-dependent convergence of pension schemes within the EU is not a natural outcome

How to make European pensions adequate and sustainable? Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, October 20, 2008