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Clauses in English Language (Wren & Martin)

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  1. Clauses in English Language(Wren & Martin) AshutoshAgarwal ashu@cse.iitb.ac.in

  2. Agenda • What are clauses ? • Types of Sentences • Types of Clauses & their properties • Adverb Clauses • Adjective Clauses • Noun Clauses

  3. Clause ? Group of words that forms part of a sentence, has a Subject & a predicate of its own

  4. Types of sentences • Simple • Compound • Complex We need this study to understand the occurrence of clauses in various forms

  5. Simple Sentences • Simple • 1 subject, 1 predicate, only 1 Finite Verb • His courage won him honour. The finite forms of a verb are the forms where the verb shows tense, person or number.

  6. Compound Sentences • Made up of 2 (or more) independent clauses (Main) (all of same rank) • Joined by co-ordinating conjunction and • Ram went to Nagpur andShyam went to Pune • Night came onandrain fell heavily andwe all got very wet. • Types • Copulative • Adversative • Alternative • Illative

  7. Types of Compound Sentences • Copulative: main clauses are simply coupled together • God made the countryandman made the town. • Babar was not only a great soldier, he was also a wise ruler. • He cannot speak, norcan he write. • He plays the piano, he sings also. • The innocent were punishedas well as the guilty.

  8. Types of Compound Sentences • Adversative: two main clauses are opposed in meaning • He is slow, buthe is sure. • I did my best, neverthelessI failed. • He is rich, yethe is not happy. • He is vain, stillhis friends adore him.

  9. Types of Compound Sentences • Alternative or Disjunctive: main clauses are disjoined in meaning • She must weep, orshe must die. • Eitherhe is mad, orhe feigns madness. • Neithera borrower nora lender be. • Walk quickly, elseyou will not overtake him.

  10. Types of Compound Sentences • Illative: the second clause draws an inference from the first • He is diligent, thereforehe will succeed. • He is unwell, sohe cannot attend office. • The angels are equal, consequentlythe sides are equal.

  11. Compound sentences: other stuff • Contracted subject • He chid their warnings, but relieved their pain. • = He chid their warnings, but he relieved their pain. • Contracted verb • Some praise the work and some the architect. • = Some praise the work and some praise the architect • No connecting word may be used • Temperance promotes health, intemperance destroys it.

  12. Complex sentences • They restedwhen the night came on. • When night came on cannot be a sentence by itself • Hence lower rank • Called subordinate clause • Complex sentence contains • One main clause • One or more subordinate clauses • Examples • Anil called at 5:30and I told himthat you had gone out Compound part Main Clause Main Clause Subordinate Clause

  13. Three kinds of subordinate clauses • Adverb clause • Adjective clause • Noun clause

  14. Adjective Clauses • Play the role of an adjective • The umbrella with a broken handleis mine • The umbrella which has a broken handleis mine • [Which umbrella ?] • Second sentence contains a subject & a predicate Phrase !!!! Adverb Clause !!!

  15. Special properties of Adjective Clause • Introduced by a relative pronoun or relative adverb • Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown • He is the man whom we all respect • The time when the boat leaves is not yet fixed • The reason why I did it is obvious • Relative pronoun (or adverb) may be missing • Eat all ^you can (that is understood) • I saw a man ^I know (whom is understood) • Where’s the book ^he left me ?

  16. Adverb Clause • Clause the playing the role of a adverb • E.g., They rested when eveningcame. • Not a phrase since • Subject=evening & • predicate = (came when) • Though like a sentence but inside a sentence • He fled where his pursuers could not follow.

  17. Adverb Clauses • Kinds of Adverb Clauses • Time • Place • Purpose • Clause • Condition • Result • Comparison • Supposition or Concession

  18. Adverb Clauses: Time • Introduced by subordinating conjunctions whenever, while, after, before, since, as • When you have finished your work you may go home. • I will do it when I think fit. • Don’t talk while she is singing. • After the law had been passed this form of crime ceased. • Do it before you forget. • Before you go bring me some water. • There was silence as the leader spoke. • Just as he entered the room the clock struck.

  19. Adverb Clause: Place • Where, wherever • I have put it where I can find it again. • They can stay where they are. • Where you live I will live. • He led the caravan wherever he wanted to go.

  20. Adverb Clause: Purpose • So that, in order that, lest • I will give you a map so that you find the way. • We eat so that we may live. • The UNO was formed in order that countries might discuss world problems. • He was extra polite to his seniors lest something adverse should be written into his records. • Sleep not lest your Lord come in the night.

  21. Adverb Clause: Cause/Reason • Because, as, since, that • Because I believe you, I shall help you. • I did it because I wanted to. • Since you are so clever you will be able to explain this. • Since you swear to me, I will employ you. • I am glad that you like it. • He was very pleased that you have passed. • As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.

  22. Adverb Clause: Condition (1) • If, whether, unless • If I like it, I shall buy it. • Come, if you wish to. • If it rains we shall stay at home. • You must go whether you hear from him or not. • Whether Ram gives him money or not, he will speak the truth. • Unless you work hard you will fail.

  23. Adverb Clauses: Condition(2) • Sometimes subjordinating conjuct. is ommitted • What would you answer did I ask you such a question? • Had I not seen this with my own eyes I would not have believed it. • Sometimes introduced by a relative pronoun (adjec, adverb) without any antecedent • Whatever happens keep calm. • Don’t annoy him whatever you do. • Whatever may be the result, I shall refuse.

  24. Adverb Clause: Result/Consequence • That (So or such may precede principal clause) • He is such a good man that all respect him. • So great a fire raged that London was burnt down. • Romans built in such a way that their walls are intact. • He spoke in such a low voice that few could hear him. • Sometimes subordinating conjunction is dropped • He was so weak ^ he could not speak. • I am so deaf ^ I cannot hear thunder. • It was so late ^ I waited no longer.

  25. Adverb Clause: Comparison (degree/manner) • 1. Adv. Clause of comparison of degree • Than, as (relative adverb) • He is older than he looks. • No one can run faster than Rama. • It is later than I thought. • He is as stupid as he is lazy. • He is not so clever as you think. • Verb of degree of comparison is often understood and not expressed • Nobody knows it better than I. [do] • Few are better leader than he. [is] • You like curry better than I. [like it].

  26. Adverb Clause: Comparison (degree/manner) • Adv. Clause of comparison of manner • As (relative adverb) • You many do as you please. • It all ended as I expected. • As you have made your bedso you must lie on it. • As he has lived so will he die. • As the twig is bent the branch will grow.

  27. Adverb Clause : Supposition/Concession • Though, although, even if • Though I am poor I am honest. • He set sail though the storm threatened. • I shall be able to get in although I have no ticket. • Although I forbade this you have done it. • Even if it rains I shall come. • I would not do it even if you paid me. Suppostion: an idea or a statement believed or assumed to be true Concession: failure to challenge, thus assumed to be true

  28. Noun Clauses • Play the role of noun • I expect to get a prize. • I expect that I shall get a prize. • [Expect what ?] • 1st is phrase, 2nd clause • That you have come pleases me

  29. Noun clause can be a __ • Subject of a verb • That you should say so surprises me. • What he said was true • The object of a transitive verb - He says that he won’t go. - Tell me where you live. • The object of a preposition - Pay careful attention to what I am going to say.

  30. Noun clause can be a __ • In apposition to a noun or pronoun • Your statement that you found money in the street will not be believed. • You must never forget this, that honesty is the best policy. • Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to define or modify the other. • E.g., my friend Ram, here Ram is an oppostion to my friend

  31. Noun clause can be a __ 5. The complement of a verb of incomplete predication • My belief is that he will not come. • Her constant prayer was that the child might live. • Life is what we make it. • This is where I live. • My wish is that I may please you. Incomplete predication: Consider the sentence He looks upset. You have to supply a word like upset (or tired, sad, happy, cheerful etc.) to make the sense complete. Looks is therefore a verb of incomplete predication.

  32. Thank You !

  33. Something more … • Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to define or modify the other. • E.g., my friend Ram, here Ram is an oppostion to my friend