Geographic Mapping of SARS. Maged N Kamel Boulos PhD , MSc, MBBCh School for Health/ Institute of Health & Medicine University of Bath Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK E-mail: M.N.K.Boulos@bath.ac.uk.
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Maged N Kamel BoulosPhD, MSc, MBBCh
School for Health/ Institute of Health & Medicine
University of Bath
Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Based on: Kamel Boulos MN. Geographic Mapping of SARS. Presented at the “Epidemiology: A Spatial Perspective” meeting organised by Telford Institute of Environmental Systems with the backing of the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society, University of Salford, Greater Manchester, UK, 17 June 2003 [http://www.ties.salford.ac.uk/epimeet/meeting.htm]
Revision 3 (28 June 2003)
On 29 March 2003, Dr Carlo Urbani, an expert on communicable diseases, died of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Dr Urbani was the first World Health Organization (WHO) officer to identify the outbreak of this new disease, in an American businessman who had been admitted to a hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. Because of his early detection of SARS, global surveillance was heightened and many new cases have been identified and isolated before they infected hospital staff.
Dr Urbani’s Photo and Text Source: WHO
Dr Carlo Urbani(born 19 October 1956; died 29 March 2003)
A medical staff member takes the temperature of a passenger at Hong Kong International Airport.
SARS Coronavirus. Source: Department of Microbiology, the University of Hong Kong and the Government Virus Unit, Department of Health, Hong Kong SAR China.
< Dr. John Snow (1813-1858), a legendary figure in the history of public health, epidemiology and anaesthesiology
See: Kamel Boulos MN, Roudsari AV, Carson ER Health Geomatics: An Enabling Suite of Technologies in Health and Healthcare (Methodolical Review).J Biomed Inform2001, 34(3):195-219 - URL: [http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jbin.2001.1015]
This map is a digital recreation of Dr Snow’s hand-drawn map. The 1854 cholera deaths are displayed as small black circles. The gray polygon represents the former burial plot of plague victims. The Broad Street pump (shown in the centre of the map) proved to be the source of contaminated water, just as Snow had hypothesised.
Generated using CDC Epi Map 2000 for Windows, a public domain package that can be downloaded from [http://www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/]
Examples of frequently-updated SARS datasets on the Internet
The WHO’s map of the “cumulative number of reported probable SARS cases” as of 29 April 2003 ([http://www.who.int/csr/sars/map-2003_04_29.gif]).
The WHO’s map of the “number of current probable SARS cases” as of 26 May 2003 ([http://www.who.int/csr/sars/map2003_05_26.gif]).
The WHO’s map of the “number of current probable SARS cases” as of 24June 2003 ([http://www.who.int/csr/sars/en/map2003_06_24.gif]).
Corda’s world map of SARS displays data for each country affected by SARS. As the mouse moves over a country, a ToolTip appears with the cumulative number of reported cases. An accompanying graph shows SARS deaths by country. Users can also drill-down into the United States map to view how many cases have been reported in each state.
One of MapAsia’s SARS distribution maps for Hong Kong (24 April 2003). Legend: orange circle buffers: some other case(s) within 250m; yellow circle buffers: no other case within 250m; red triangle: infected case; purple triangle: de-listed case; green: suspected case (none shown in this screenshot). The toolbar to the left of the map provides the sort of functionality found in a standard desktop GIS interface.
MapAsia’s provincial SARS distribution map of China (23 April 2003). Note the dichromatic choropleth rendition and graduated pie charts (refer to map legend on the right).
MapAsia’s provincial SARS distribution map of China shown above adopts a dichromatic choropleth scheme with graduated provincial pie charts depicting the relative numbers of discharged/under treatment/ dead cases in affected provinces.
ESRI China’s “SARS GIS”—SARS case distribution in Hong Kong. Note the list of affected building addresses (bottom left).
Hong Kong SARS distribution maps by Hong Kong Yellow Pages. The map appearing in this screenshot highlights the relationship between the predominant housing type and infected buildings. The only infected building (Wing Shui House—red dot) seen in this screenshot falls within a public housing area (yellow).
A map by Hong Kong Yellow Pages showing the progressional change of SARS-infected buildings in Hong Kong as of 25 May 2003. Green dots represent cleared buildings while red dots (none shown on this particular map) represent buildings infected within one day.
Sunday Communications Ltd [http://www.sunday.com/]
An online interactive SARS distribution map of China with a Chinese interface by SuperMap GIS Technologies, Inc.
The HKU map shows SARS infected areas in Hong Kong over a five-day period (each day is presented as a separate map layer).
The site is powered by ESRI’s ArcIMS.
Source: US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Update: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome—United States, 2003.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2003, 52(17):388-390
See also: Terje Midtbø. Visualization of the temporal dimension in multimedia presentations of spatial phenomena. In: Jan Terje Bjørke and Håvard Tveite (Editors). Proceedings of ScanGIS'2001 - The 8th Scandinavian Research Conference on Geographical Information Science, 25-27 June 2001, Ås, Norway. Ås: Department of Mapping Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway. 2001; 213-224 [http://www.nlh.no/conf/scangis2001/papers/33.pdf]
<HKU Department of Geography Mapping SARS Workshop (28 June 2003 or 12 July 2003 - [http://geog.hku.hk/sarsworkshop/])