Sentence-Level Revision Week 13: Preparing for BA9
Important Dates • BA9: Tuesday, April 22 • Draft 1.2: Tuesday, April 29 • After today, two more classes • Penultimate: Thursday, April 24 • Last class: Thursday, May 1 • Yes, you have to show up • Writing Review: Tuesday, May 6 • No Final Exam • Reminder: You are only allowed two unexcused absences
Assignments and Updates • Instructions for BA9 have already been posted • Instructions for Draft 1.2 will be posted tomorrow • Next week’s office hours will be held tomorrow @ 12-3PM • I will offer my last two sets of office hours on Monday, April 28 and Monday, May 5@12-3PM • Please visit the Writing Center so the tutors can help you revise
Goals for Today • Understanding sentence-level revision • Reviewing grammar points, particularly • Sentence Structure (Basic, Compound, Complex) • Sentence Fragments • Fused and Run-on Sentences • Comma Splice • Practice identifying and correcting grammar errors • Identify grammar errors in your current drafts and begin correcting them
Sentence-Level Revisions How to revise within paragraphs
Where to Begin • Content>Grammar • To successfully revise at the sentence level, you must first revise larger issues • Before you begin sentence-level revision, make sure your essay discusses rhetorical choices’ effects on the audience and how those effects help the author achieve his purpose • Once you have done that, you can move on to revising the logic and effectiveness of sentences before focusing on grammar
Sentence Structure, pt. 1:Eight Parts of Speech • Nouns – names person (living being), place, or thing • Charlie (dog), Lubbock, book • Pronouns – takes the place of a noun • I, you, he, she, it, ours, them, who • Verbs – identifies action or state of being • walk, study, to be, is • Adjectives – modifies a noun • humorous, tall, lazy • Adverbs – modifies verb, adjective, or other adverb • quickly, often, anywhere
Eight Parts of Speech (cont.) • Prepositions – shows relationship between a noun/pronoun and other words • under, by, against, up, beyond, for • Conjunctions – joins words, phrases, and clauses • and, or, but • Interjections – expresses emotion • Ouch!, Wow!, Hey!
pt. 2: Sentences Parts &Basic Sentence Structure • For a sentence to be considered complete it must include a Subject, which is the noun that performs an action, and a Predicate, which includes the verb, object(of the action performed), and other parts of sentences. • The most basic sentences are composed of a subject and a predicate that only includes a verb. • Charlie ran. • Even imperative sentences that are made up of one word follow this rule because the subject is implied • Work. = (You) Work.
Basic Sentence Structure (cont.) • Another type of basic sentence structure is composed of Subject and a Predicate that includes verb and object • Allison bakes cakes. • Other basic sentences can be composed of Subject, Predicate, Modifiers (adjectives, adverbs, or phrases that act as such), prepositions, and (some, not all) conjunctions • The tired player ran quickly through the muddy soccer field.
Basic Sentence Structure (cont.) • Some sentences can have compound subjects and compound predicates • Her uncle and she walked slowly through the Inuit art gallery and admired the powerful sculptures exhibited there. (http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/subjpred.html#predicate)
Sentence Structure, pt. 4: Clauses • A clause is a group of words that contains both a subject and a predicate but cannot always be considered as a full grammatical sentence. * • If a clause can stand alone as a sentence, it is an independent clause # • the Prime Minister is in Ottawa • If a clause cannot stand alone, it is a dependent clause (or subordinate clause) • when the Prime Minister is in Ottawa • Adverb and adjective clauses are dependent clauses • The committee will meet when the Prime Minister is in Ottawa. • the coat which I bought yesterday • Use conjunctions to unite dependent clauses with independent ones • *(http://www.whitesmoke.com/clauses-in-english) • # (http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/claustyp.html#independent%20clause)
pt. 5: Compound Sentences • A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses(or simple sentences) joined by co-ordinating conjunctions like "and," "but," and "or": • Simple: Canada is a rich country. • Simple: Still, it has many poor people. • Compound: Canada is a rich country, but still it has many poor people. (http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/sntstrct.html)
pt. 6: Complex Sentences • A complex sentence consists of one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. • From St. Martin’s e-book:
Pt. 7: Complex-Compound Sentences • A compound-complex sentence consists of two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. • From St. Martin’s e-book:
pt. 7: Problematic sentence structures • St. Martin’s e-book • Part 7, Chapters 34-39 • Chapters are short. Please read through them and pay special attention to the green boxes that appear with tips on how to revise specific issues. Reading these chapters will be very useful to you as you revise your essay for Draft 1.2. • We will review these points if time permits • Sentence Fragments (Ch. 37) • Comma Splices & Fused Sentences (Ch. 36)
Pt. 8: Sentence Fragments • From St. Martin’s e-book: • Phrases are groups of words that lack a subject, a verb, or both (29c3). When phrases are punctuated like sentences, they become fragments. • To revise such a fragment, attach it to an independent clause,or make it a separate sentence. • The word group with discussions afterward is a prepositional phrase, not a sentence. The editing combines the phrase with an independent clause. • Please read Ch. 37 for other examples
Pt. 9: Comma Splices & Fused Sentences • A comma splice is when two complete sentences are united by one comma rather than being divided into units through the use of a period • A fused sentence is when two complete sentences are combined into one sentence because of a lack of proper punctuation
Pt. 9, 2: Examples • From the St. Martin’s e-book:
Activity 2 • Groups of two • Exchange drafts and • Circle subjects • Underline predicates • Double underline verbs within predicates • Box off sentence fragments, run-on/fused sentences, and comma splices • Individually • Read through what has been marked • Determine if items marked need to be corrected • Look for unmarked errors