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Chapter Ten - Serology

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  1. Chapter Ten - Serology FRSC 8104 Criminalistics II Professor Bensley

  2. FRSC 8104 – Serology Objectives • Describe the basic components of blood • Convey the techniques for collecting and preserving blood evidence at a crime scene. • List and describe various forensic tests used to characterize a stain as blood. • Understand the concept of antigen-antibody interaction and how it is applied to the origin determination of blood.

  3. FRSC 8104 – Serology Objectives • List the A-B-O antigens and antibodies found in the blood for each of the four blood types: A, B, AB, and O. • Understand and describe how whole blood is typed. • Describe the structure of components of semen and understand the laboratory tests used to characterize seminal stains.

  4. FRSC 8104 – Serology Outline • Introduction • What is serology? • Three main goals of Forensic Serology • What is proteomics? • Blood • Formed Elements • Erythrocytes (RBC) • Leukocytes (WBC) • Lymphocytes • Monocytes • Granulocytes • Platelets

  5. FRSC 8104 – Serology Outline • Fluid (Native Plasma) • Serum = Plasma - fibrinogen http://home.comcast.net/~itpaware/platelets.html

  6. http://www.pennmedicine.org/health_info/bloodless/000209.htmlhttp://www.pennmedicine.org/health_info/bloodless/000209.html

  7. FRSC 8104 – Serology Outline • Collection of Blood Evidence • Factors Affecting Blood Evidence • Presumptive Tests for Blood • Introduction – Catalytic Tests • General Reaction • False positives and False negatives • Color Tests • Kastle-Meyer • Tetramethylbenzidine • Leucomalachite Green

  8. FRSC 8104 – Serology Outline • Other Presumptive Tests • Chemiluminescent Tests (Luminol) • Fluorescent Tests (Fluorescein) http://www.webpagedreams.com/ABPD/Investigation.htm

  9. FRSC 8104 – Serology Outline • Confirmatory Tests for Blood • Crystal Tests • Takayama Test • Antigens and Antibodies, Etc. • Antigens • Definition • Types • Requirements

  10. FRSC 8104 – Serology Outline • Antibodies • Definition • Types • Structure • Classes • Antigen/Antibody Reactions • Antisera

  11. FRSC 8104 – Serology Outline • Origin Determination Examinations • False Positives • False Negatives • Ring Precipitin Test http://diverge.hunter.cuny.edu/~weigang/Lecture-syllabus.html

  12. FRSC 8104 – Serology Outline • Ouchterlony Double Diffusion

  13. http://www.nfstc.org/pdi/Subject02/pdi_s02_m02_02_b.htm

  14. FRSC 8104 – Serology Outline • Blood Group Systems • ABO System • Introduction • Genetics http://bloodcenter.stanford.edu/about_blood/blood_types.html

  15. FRSC 8104 – Serology Outline • Body Fluids • Seminal Fluid • Pipeline Effect • Pre-Sperm – Cowper’s Gland • Sperm-Rich – Prostate Gland • Post-Sperm – Seminal Vasicular Secretion • Spermatozoa • Morphology • Production • Their Fate

  16. FRSC 8104 – Serology Outline • Seminal Plasma • Prostatic Acid Phosphatase • Introduction • Testing Procedures • Choline • Spermine • Barberios Test • P30 (PSA)

  17. FRSC 8104 – Serology Outline • Saliva • Introduction • Secretors vs. Non-Secretors • Formation • Parotid Gland • Submandibular (Submaxillary) Gland • Sublingual Glands • Composition • Functions • Testing • Amylase – Phedebas Test

  18. FRSC 8104 – Serology Outline • Secretor System • Lewis System • Introduction • Genetics • Urine • Composition • Properties • Testing Procedures