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Chapter Ten. Child Health. The Importance of Child Health. 8.8 million children under the age of 5 die each year Many of these deaths are preventable Children are a particularly vulnerable population Closely linked with poverty

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Chapter Ten


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chapter ten

Chapter Ten

Child Health

the importance of child health
The Importance of Child Health
  • 8.8 million children under the age of 5 die each year
  • Many of these deaths are preventable
  • Children are a particularly vulnerable population
  • Closely linked with poverty
  • Insufficient progress has been made in certain parts of the world in reducing childhood morbidity and mortality
key terms
Key Terms
  • Perinatal : first week of life
  • Neonatal : referring to the first month of life
  • Infant : referring to the first year of life
  • Under-5 : referring to children 0-4 years old
the burden of childhood illness
The Burden of Childhood Illness

Children Under 5 Years

  • 99% of childhood deaths are in low- and middle-income countries
  • Half of these deaths occur in India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, and China
  • 41% of under-5 child deaths occur among neonates
  • Rates and causes vary across and within countries
  • General trend is decline, but rates of decline also vary considerably by region
table 10 3 leading causes of under 5 child death for selected who regions by percentage 2008
Table 10.3: Leading Causes of Under-5 Child Death for Selected WHO Regions, by Percentage, 2008
additional comments on selected causes of morbidity and mortality
Additional Comments on Selected Causes of Morbidity and Mortality

Acute Respiratory Infections

  • Leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries
  • More severe and cause higher rates of death in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries
  • Upper respiratory tract infections include the common cold and ear infections, lower respiratory infections include bronchiolitis and pneumonia
additional comments on selected causes of morbidity and mortality1
Additional Comments on Selected Causes of Morbidity and Mortality

Diarrhea

  • Caused by bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths
  • Causes dehydration, loss of nutrition or wasting, and damage to the intestines
  • Infants 6-11 months are particularly vulnerable because they have been introduced to unsafe water and foods
additional comments on selected causes of morbidity and mortality2
Additional Comments on Selected Causes of Morbidity and Mortality

Malaria

  • 750,000 children die from malaria each year
  • A child in sub-Saharan Africa is likely to have a case every 40 days
  • Associated with premature birth and intrauterine growth retardation, which reduce chances of survival
additional comments on selected causes of morbidity and mortality3
Additional Comments on Selected Causes of Morbidity and Mortality

HIV/AIDS

  • Can be transmitted from mother to child during birth or breastfeeding
  • Number of HIV-infected children has grown, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa
additional comments on selected causes of morbidity and mortality4
Additional Comments on Selected Causes of Morbidity and Mortality

Measles

  • Acute respiratory infection with complications including pneumonia, diarrhea, encephalitis, and blindness
  • Children who are vitamin A deficient or infected with HIV are more at risk of death
  • Extremely contagious if a population is not vaccinated
additional comments on neonatal mortality
Additional Comments on Neonatal Mortality
  • 41% of children under 5 who die annually, actually die in the first month
  • Little progress in reducing neonatal death rate
  • Every day that a child lives increases the likelihood that he or she will stay alive
  • To reduce childhood death rates, the world needs to focus more precisely on when the deaths occur
risk factors for neonatal infant and child deaths
Risk Factors for Neonatal, Infant and Child Deaths
  • Nutrition status
  • Household income and education of mother
  • Access to trained healthcare provider to attend birth and provide counseling
  • Water quality and sanitation
the cost and consequences of child morbidity and mortality
The Cost and Consequences of Child Morbidity and Mortality
  • High costs of caring for a sick child
  • Potential long-term disability
  • Poor school attendance and performance
addressing key challenges in child health
Addressing Key Challenges in Child Health
  • Progress has been largely between 1 and 5 years; very little has been made in reducing the death rate of neonates
  • Insufficient progress in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia
  • Low-cost, highly effective interventions are not being implemented where they are needed most
addressing key challenges in child health1
Addressing Key Challenges in Child Health

Critical Child Health Interventions

  • Ensuring nutrition and health of the mother and mother-to-be
  • Essential newborn care, extra care for small babies, and emergency care for newborns
  • Preventing and managing diarrhea with hygiene, proper nutrition, measles vaccinations, and ORT
  • Basic vaccinations
addressing key challenges in child health2
Addressing Key Challenges in Child Health

Community-Based Approaches to Improving Child Health

  • Women’s groups to raise awareness of maternal, fetal, and neonatal issues
  • Community-based promotion of hygiene, umbilical cord care, and keeping the baby warm
addressing key challenges in child health3
Addressing Key Challenges in Child Health

Integrated Management of Childhood Illness

  • Integrated healthcare approach for children because of many interrelated factors
  • Healthcare workers trained at all levels, particularly home and community-based