Bolivia By Alana Anderson
People • Population: 10,426,154 as of 2011 • Composition: 55% indigenous (primarily Aymara and Quechua), 30% mestizo or mixed, 15% European • Languages: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, Guarani • Age distribution: 0-14 38%, 15-59 55%, 60+ 7%
Economics • Unemployment rate: 8.3% • Economic growth rate: 4.1% • Income distribution: • Highest 10%: 45.3% • Lowest 10%: 0.5% • GINI Index: 58.2 (world rank: 9th)
Government • Type: unitary presidential republic • Independence: August 6th, 1825 • President: Evo Morales President Evo Morales
Culture • Festivals The Carnival of Oruru is a famous festival held in Bolivia. Ancient dances such as the “Llama Llama” and “Diablada” The “Diablada”
Industries • Agriculture Farmland in Bolivia
Industries • Mining Mining in Potosi
Industries • Textiles Bolivian Textile
History • August 6th, 1825: Established as a republic by Simon Bolivar • 1952: Nationalist Revolutionary Movement revolution – introduced universal adult suffrage, carried out a sweeping land reform, promoted rural education, and nationalized the country’s largest tin mine • 1971: Hugo Banzer Suarez elected president – economy grew during this time
History • Simon Bolivar Simon Bolivar was born July 24, 1783 in Caracas, Venezuela. He is referred to as “El Liberator” and the “George Washington of South America.” Bolivar, along with Jose de San Martin, fought for Latin America’s independence. After much of a fight, Bolivar defeated the Spanish in Boyar in 1819 (Bolivar). After winning its independence, Bolivar contributed in the foundation of Gran Colombia (now Bolivia, Panama, Peru, Ecuador, and Venezuela), the union of independent nations in Latin America (Simon). Bolivar served as president for Gran Colombia from 1819 until his death in Santa Marta, Colombia in 1830.
Current Issues • Deforestation Deforestation is a big problem in Bolivia, as it is for most other Latin American countries. Forests in Bolivia are being taken down for cropland, livestock grazing, and tropical timber. During 1990 to 1995 alone, almost 7,413,161 acres (3 million hectares) were lost (Bolivia-guide). Something Bolivia is doing to try and turn this pattern around is entering a “debt for nature” swap, an agreement allowing developing countries to pay off national debt by conserving nature (Boliva-guide). Bolivia was the first Latin American country to do this.
Current Issues • Water Unsanitary water is another issue in Bolivia. Water contamination is mainly caused by mining and improper disposal of garbage. Since Bolivia is such a poor country, people cannot spend the necessary money on water sanitation. The effect of this issue is diarrhea and other serious illnesses.
Current Issues • Poverty Bolivia is South America’s poorest country. Around 60% of people live in poverty and 24% live in extreme poverty (Unicef). The effect of Bolivia’s poverty is that many young children and teenagers are forced into labor so they can earn money for their families. This can lead to illness, malnourishment and essentially a downward spiral that can continue until death.
Relations • United States Bolivia and the United States have a friendly relationship. The United States has been very forgiving with Bolivia.