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Functional Groups. Ethers. Ethers are much like alcohols except the oxygen is bound to two carbons instead of a carbon and a hydrogen. Unlike alcohols the ethers are not polar molecules so they will not dissolve in water

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ethers
Ethers
  • Ethers are much like alcohols except the oxygen is bound to two carbons instead of a carbon and a hydrogen
slide4

Unlike alcohols the ethers are not polar molecules so they will not dissolve in water

  • Since they are not polar there is little interaction between molecules and so they have a much lower boiling point
    • DEE (-35°C)
amines
Amines
  • Are compounds where a N is bound to 1, 2, or 3 saturated carbons.
  • Short amines have very strong odors
slide7

Once again amines are less polar than alcohols but more polar than ethers so their boiling points will be in the middle

    • Diethylamine is 55°C
  • Ethanol
  • Dimethyl ether
carbonyl groups
Carbonyl groups
  • The rest of the functional groups all have one common theme
  • A carbonyl group is a carbon that is double bonded to an oxygen
slide9

Ketones and aldehydes are very similar

  • Ketones are carbonyl groups attached to two carbons
  • Aldehydes are carbonyl groups attached to one carbon and one hydrogen
slide11

Carboxylic acid is where the carboxyl group is bound to a carbon and a hydroxyl group

  • They are called acids because the –OH group is very willing to donate a H to solution
more functional groups
More functional groups
  • Amides
  • Like amines these contain nitrogen
  • Difference:
    • They are connected to a carbonyl group
slide15

Esters contain a carboxyl group and are very similar to a carboxylic acid except the terminal hydrogen is replaced with a carbon or chain of carbons

  • Fairly short esters are found in a wide variety of odors and flavors
polymers
Polymers
  • A mer is the name given to a small molecular unit
  • A single mer is called a monomer
    • They can consist of 4-100 atoms
  • When monomers join together they form polymers
where are they found
Where are they found?
  • Plastics – man-made polymers
    • Can be called synthetic polymers
  • Biopolymers
    • Plant cell walls
    • Proteins, DNA, complex carbohydrates
synthetic polymers
Synthetic Polymers
  • Are made with one of two reactions
  • Addition or Condensation
addition polymers
Addition Polymers
  • Addition polymers form from joining together two or more monomers
  • This reaction requires the presence of a double bond
slide23

In addition polymerization no atoms are gained or lost

  • Only electrons are shared between monomers
polyethylene
Polyethylene
  • There are two basic types of polyethylene
  • First is High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
  • The second is Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
high density
High Density
  • This polymer contains only straight chain polyethylene which makes it a dense and hard plastic
low density
Low Density
  • Low density occurs when the chains branch. This leads to softer more flexible plastic.
condensation polymers
Condensation Polymers
  • These polymers are formed by the joining of two or more monomers and their formation results in the loss of a small molecule.
    • This requires the use of functional groups
    • Can you think of any functional groups that contain oxygen or hydrogen?
slide31

Many different condensation polymers are formed from two separate compounds

  • Therefore they can be called copolymers
  • - two different monomers that work together to form a polymer
slide32

Condensation

polymers can

also be

branched.