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Functional Groups. Organic Reactions. HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION. H. H. H. H. Cl. C. Cl. Halogen Molecule. Hydracid. Hydrocarbon. Halocarbon. HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION. H. H. H. H. H. H. H. +. →. +. C. C. Cl. Cl. Cl. H. Cl. CH 4. +. Cl 2. →. CH (4-1) Cl.

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functional groups

FunctionalGroups

OrganicReactions

slide2

HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION

H

H

H

H

Cl

C

Cl

Halogen

Molecule

Hydracid

Hydrocarbon

Halocarbon

slide3

HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

+

+

C

C

Cl

Cl

Cl

H

Cl

CH4

+

Cl2

CH(4-1)Cl

CH3Cl

+

HCl

Chlorine

Molecule

Hydrochloric

Acid

Chloromethane

Methane

+

+

slide4

HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION

H

H

Cl

Cl

H

H

Cl

C

Cl-

2Halogen

Molecules

Halocarbon

Disubstituted

2Hydracids

Hydrocarbon

slide5

HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION

Cl

H

H

H

H

H

H

+

+

C

C

Cl

2Cl

Cl

2H

Cl

CH4

+

2Cl2

CH(4-2)Cl

CH2Cl2

+

2HCl

2

Hydrochloric

Acid

2

Chlorine

Molecule

Dichloro

methane

Methane

+

+

slide6

HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION

  • Foreveryhalogensubstitutionyouneed:
    • Only 1HydrocarbonMoleculeforallthesubstitutions as long as it has enoughHydrogens
    • 1 HalogenMoleculewith 2 atoms of thesamehalogen
slide7

HALOGEN SUBSTITUTON REACTION

  • Foreveryhalogensubstitutionyou produce:
    • Only 1 HalocarbonMoleculewithallthesubstitutions.
      • 1 Hydrogenatomless and 1 Halogenatom more
    • 1 HydracidMolecule of thatHalogen
slide9

HALOGEN ADDITION REACTION

H

H

H

H

C

C

Cl

Cl

Halogen

Molecule

Disubstituted

Halocarbon

Unsaturted

Hydrocarbon

slide10

HALOGEN ADDITION REACTION

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

+

Cl

C

C

Cl

C

C

Cl

Cl

C2H4Cl2

C2H4

+

Cl2

Chlorine

Molecule

Dichloroethane

Ethene

+

slide11

HALOGEN ADDITION REACTION

  • Foreveryhalogenadditionyouneed:
    • Only 1UnsaturatedHydrocarbonMoleculeforalltheadditions as long as it has enoughDoubleor Triple bonds
    • 1 HalogenMoleculewith 2 atoms of thesamehalogen
slide12

HALOGEN ADDITION REACTION

  • Foreveryhalogenadditionyou produce:
    • Only 1 HalocarbonMoleculewithalltheadditions.
      • 2 Halogenatom more
naming halocarbons

Namethe

Halogen

Branches

Fluorine= Fluoro

Chlorine= Chloro

Bromine= Bromo

Iodine= Iodo

NamingHalocarbons

Namethe

Biggest

Hydrocarbon

Chain

Select and Numberthe

Biggest

Hydrocarbon

Chain

Namethe

Alkyl

Branches

Arrangethe

Branches in

Alphabetical

Order

2

4

PERFECT!

Cl

Br

CH3

C

C

3

CH3

CH3

1

5

CH3

Cl

4 Carbons

5 Carbons

4 Carbons

Pentane

2,3-dichloro

2-bromo

3-methyl

=

slide15

ALCOHOLS

  • An alcohol isanorganiccompound in which a hydroxylgroupreplaces a hydrogenatom of a hydrocarbon.
  • General Formula

R-OH

  • Nameitthesame as alkanesbutchangetheending -e for –ol and addthe position of the OH.
  • Ifthere are more thanone OH, don’teliminatethe

-e, puttheir positions, and put a prefix (d,tri,tetra, etc.)

slide16

AMINES

  • An amine isanorganiccompoudthatcontainnitrogenatomsbondedtocarbonatoms in rings.
  • General Formula

R-NH2

  • Nameitthesame as alcoholsbutchangetheending -olfor –amine and thehydrocarbonpartisnamedlike a branch (exceptfor more thanone NH2).
slide17

ETHERS

  • Anetherisanorganiccompoundcontaininganoxygenatombondedtotwocarbonatoms.
  • General Formula

R-O-R’

  • Nameitbynamingbothhydrocarbonchains as branches and addtheendingether