Protein sintesis & Translasi. MRQ 2009. Review : Replication.
The pathway from DNA to protein. The flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA (transcription) and from RNA to protein (translation) occurs in all living cells
Wobble base-pairing between codons and anticodons. If the nucleotide listed in the first column is present at the third, or wobble, position of the codon, it can base-pair with any of the nucleotides listed in the second column. Thus, for example, when inosine (I) is present in the wobble position of the tRNA anticodon, the tRNA can recognize any one of three different codons in bacteria and either of two codons in eucaryotes. The inosine in tRNAs is formed from the deamination of guanine (see Figure 6–55), a chemical modification that takes place after the tRNA has been synthesized
The RNA-binding sites in
the ribosome. Each ribosome has one binding site for mRNA and three binding sites for tRNA: the A-, P-, and E-sites (short for aminoacyl-tRNA, peptidyl-tRNA, and exit, respectively).
The structure of the aminoacyl-tRNA linkage. The carboxyl end of the amino acid forms an ester bond to ribose. Because the hydrolysis of this ester bond is associated with a large favorable change in free energy, an amino acid held in this way is said to be activated. (A) Schematic drawing of the structure. The amino acid is linked to the nucleotide at the 3’ end of the tRNA (B) Actual structure corresponding to the boxed region in (A). There are two major classes of synthetase enzymes: one links the amino acid directly to the 3¢-OH group of the ribose, and the other links it initially to the 2’-OH group. In the latter case, a subsequent transesterification reaction shifts the amino acid to the 3’ position. As in Figure 6–56, the “R group” indicates the side chain of the amino acid