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POPULATION ECOLOGY. Population Density. is a measurement of population per unit area. Population Total land area. What is this population density per these unit areas?. 10 m. 1nm. What affects population growth?. 1. Number of births. 2. Number of deaths.

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    2. Population Density • is a measurement of population per unit area Population Total land area

    3. What is this population density per these unit areas? 10 m 1nm

    4. What affects population growth? • 1. Number of births. • 2. Number of deaths. • 3. Number of individuals that enter or leave the population.

    5. Exponential GrowthJ curve • Exponential Growth animation

    6. Conditions for Exponential Growth • 1. plenty of food • 2. plenty of space • 3. protected from predators and disease

    7. Exponential Growth Videos • TeacherTube Videos - Bacterial Growth • **BBC - Learning Zone Class Clips - Bacterial growth – Biology Bacteria Growth Video

    8. Bacterial Culture • (click on animation of bacterial culture) • Bacterial Culture

    9. If the environment is optimum, the two daughter cells may divide into four in 20 minutes. Oh my! 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64... Then why isn't the earth covered with bacteria?

    10. Logistic GrowthS curveLogistic Growth (ani) • At first the population increases, then resources become limited…growth at a slower rate.

    11. Carrying Capacity • Largest number of individuals that an environment can support.

    12. Rabbits Over Time

    13. INTERPRETING ECOLOGICAL DATA • Graph 1: Rabbits Over Time

    14. Average Toe Length

    15. INTERPRETING ECOLOGICAL DATA • Graph 2: Average Toe Length • a. In 1800, about how many people surveyed had a 3 cm toe? ~58 • How many in 2000? ~10b. The data shows the *Stabilizing selection has occurred?c. In 2000, what is the average toe length? ~4.5 • What is the average toe length in 1800?about the same, broader range • #see next slide

    16. Mode of Natural Selection

    17. INTERPRETING ECOLOGICAL DATA • Graph 3: Mexico and US • a. In Mexico, what percentage of the population is between 0-4 years of age? 16 In the US? 7 • b. Which population is growing the fastest? Mexico • c. Which age group has the smallest number in both countries? 80+

    18. Tagging Geese

    19. INTERPRETING ECOLOGICAL DATA • Chart 4: Trapping Geese • ecologists marked 10 geese • a. Use the formula to calculate the estimated number of geese in the area studied? 60(10) / 6 = 100b. This technique is called Mark & Recapturec. Supposing more of the geese found in the trap had the mark, would the estimated number of geese in the area be greater or lesser? less (bottom number would be greater in formula)

    20. Trapping Geese recaptured

    21. Mushroom Plots

    22. INTERPRETING ECOLOGICAL DATA • Chart 5: Mushroom Plots • She plots a 10 x 10 area and randomly chooses 5 spots, • a.Calculate the number of mushrooms in the forest based on the grid data: Average per grid = 3, 100 plots; total = 300 • b. This technique is called Random Sampling

    23. Snake and Mice Populations The maximum number of individuals a habitat can support is called the Carrying Capacity. Population Growth = Mice Born – Mice Death

    24. INTERPRETING ECOLOGICAL DATA • Chart 6: Snakes & Mice (see next slide) • a. During which year was the mouse population at zero population growth? 2000, closest to zero • b. What is the carrying capacity for snakes ? 15c. What is the carrying capacity for mice? 600-620 • d. What is the rate of growth for mice during 1970? +500 During 1980? -100

    25. Density Dependent large, dense populations are more strongly affected than small, less crowded ones. EXAMPLES: Food Predators Water Disease Living space Density Independent Factors that can affect a population no matter what size it is EXAMPLES:Hurricane Forest fire Clear cutting Building dam Limiting Factors

    26. Density-Dependent Limiting Factors • Competition • Predation • Parasitism • Disease • Living Space

    27. Limited Food

    28. Predation

    29. DI DD DD DD or DI? fire predator Density of plants

    30. DD DI DD DD or DI? cannibalism Cutting trees disease

    31. LIMITING FACTORS WORKSHEET:Read Yellow Perch in Lake Winnipeg

    32. HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH • http://www.gov.mb.ca/conservation/sustain/limfac.pdf • The world population is the population of humans on the planet Earth. It is currently estimated to be 6,874,700,000 by the US Census Bureau.

    33. Human Population • How will the world population change in the future?

    34. Is the population distributed evenly around the earth?

    35. Human Population • Energy 365 Technology Basics: Population Growth : Video : Discovery Channel • Visuals: NOAA's nighttime lights of the world data set

    36. China’s One-Child Policy • It officially restricts the number of children married urban couples can have to one, although it allows exemptions for several cases, including rural couples, ethnic minorities, and parents without any siblings themselves.[ 计划生育政策

    37. Indoor Air Pollution of Poorer Countries

    38. Access to safe water and sanitation are two of the most fundamental indicators of public health.

    39. Widespread HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa is changing the region's demographic structure and impinging on its economic performance.

    40. Before the 19th century, world population grew very slowly because high fertility was offset by high mortality. Improvements in population health, triggered partly by the industrial revolution, ushered in a period of rapid population growth.

    41. Disease Can Even Jump Species

    42. The Plague

    43. Caterpillar Eating Maple Leaves

    44. Lynx vs. Hare

    45. Predator Prey Model • Predator Prey • Can change numbers of rabbits and foxes over years

    46. Clumped Random Uniform

    47. Pattern of Distribution: RANDOM