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CC - CLIMATE CHANGE:. Causes, consequences and Combating CCC with particular reference to INDIA Professor Dr. M. Vikram Reddy, FAPAS, FFEAI Department of Ecology & Environ. Sciences Pondicherry Central University , Puducherry 605 014, INDIA E-mail: [email protected]

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Causes, consequences and Combating CCCwith particular reference to INDIA

Professor Dr. M. Vikram Reddy,FAPAS,FFEAI

Department of Ecology & Environ. Sciences

Pondicherry Central University,

Puducherry 605 014, INDIA

E-mail: [email protected]

i. Human Healtha) Infectious dieses such as malaria; b) Weather related mortality such as heat stressii.EcosystemBiodiversitya).Loss of biodiversity; b). Extinction of species iii.Water resources a). Water supply due to scarcity; b) Water quality c) Competition for water resources iv. Melting of Glaciers and Sea level risev. Agriculturea)ReducedCrop yield; b) increasing demand in irrigation

what is climate change
What is climate change?
  • Climate change refers to any major change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in its measures (such as temp-erature, precipitation or wind) persisting for an extended period, typically decades or longer.
  • Climate change may be due to natural factors (changes in sun’s intensity)or natural process (changes in ocean circulation) or human activities that change the atmosphere’s composition (Ex. fossil fuel and forest & other vegetation burning) and the land surface (deforestation, reforestation, etc)
Climate change

is due to the

global warming


  • Global warming

is due to the

Greenhouse effect

what is global warming
What is Global Warming?
  • Global warming is an average increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth’s surface as well as in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate pattern.
  • Global warming, in common usage, often refers to the warming that can occur as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SFs and O3) discharged due to various anthropogenic activities.
  • Thus, now there comes the threat of climate crisis – a threat that is real, rising, imminent and universal(SPAN, March/April, 2008).
greenhouse effect
Greenhouse effect
  • Natural greenhouse gas effect known for last 175 years
  • Fourier (1827)- “atmosphere acts like glass of hothouse because it lets through light rays of the sun but retains the dark rays from the ground”
  • These trace gases are transparent to incoming short wave solar radiation
  • But absorb the outgoing long wave terrestrial radiation and remitting this energy in all directions
  • Thus fundamentally altering the radiation balance of the earth atmosphere system
global average surface temperature r elative to end 19 th century
Global average surface temperaturerelative to end 19th century
  • Natural greenhouse gas effect known for last 175 years
  • Fourier (1827)- “atmosphere acts like glass of hothouse because it lets thru light rays of the sun but retains the dark rays from the ground”
  • These trace gases are transparent to incoming short wave solar radiation
  • But absorb the outgoing long wave terrestrial radiation and remitting this energy in all directions
  • Thus fundamentally altering the radiation balance of the earth atmosphere system
the global instrumental temperature record
The global instrumental temperature record
  • Quality instrument measurements begin about 1850
  • Global record shows approximately 1 °C increase over past 150 years
  • Note “Dust Bowl” peak around 1940
  • Warming is greater in Northern Hemisphere than Southern
global warming up steadily
Global warmingup steadily

According to NASA’s GISS (Goddard Inst. Space Studies) –

  • Global temperatures have been steadily rising since the early 1980s with no significant let up in the trend
  • The over all warming trend has held through out this decade.
  • 2000-2009 was the warmest decade ever; and 17 of the 20 warmest years have been recorded in the last two decades.
  • The global temperature continued to rise rapidly in the past decade and there has been no reduction in global warming trend of 0.15-0.200C per decade that began in the late 1970s. The earth’s surface has warmed by about 0.60C since the last 1800s
  • April of was the hottest month ever and that the year 2009 so far was the warmest on record in India since 1901
  • As per NOAA, India has higher than normal temperatures all through this year, because of El Nino effect last year
percent of ghgs contributing to global warming gw
Percent of GHGs contributing to Global warming (GW)

Kyoto Protocol recognizes six GHGs

  • CO2 (Carbon dioxide) [fossil fuel – coal, oil and natural gas; forest/vegetationburning; transportation]

- 64 to 75 per cent

  • CH4 (Methane) [rice paddies, ‘managed ruminants’ –cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo & camels & oil extraction; coal mines] (24 times more GW potential than CO2) - 19 per cent
  • N2O (Nitrous oxide) [burning of garbage in dumping yards] (179 times more GW potential than CO2) - 06 per cent
  • HFCs (Hydrofluorocarbons) [aerosol propellants, air- conditioners, refrigerants, etc.] - 10.6 per cent

- Hydrofluorocarbons (CFC gases are replaced

by HFC coolants)

- Perfluoro carbons(PFCs)

- Sulfur hexafluoride(SF6) - 0.4 per cent

hfcs save ozone layer but make world more warmer
HFCs save Ozone layer, but make world more warmer
  • CFC gases were widely used in air-conditioning and

refrigeration units before they were found damaging Ozone layer, and were banned under the 1987 Montreal Protocol

  • Replaced by HFCs – hydrofluorocarbons - have far less effect on Ozone layer;but have been revealed as extremely powerful GHGs - The biggest source of HFC emission is air-conditioning in vehicles
  • One tonne of HFC-23 used in refrigeration has the same global warming (GW) potential as 14,800 tonnes of CO2
  • A tonne of HFC-134a, widely used in vehicle air-conditioning units, is equivalent to 1,430 tonnes of CO2; [N20 is 270 more potent than carbon dioxide]
  • It is warned that by 2050, HFCs could account for up to 19% of GW; by that time the contribution of HFCs to GW will be more than that of current global CO2 emission from houses and office buildings. Because, by 2050, the demand for HFCs is likely to increase by 800% compared with today’s figure
Total GHG emissions




















Between 1970 and 2004 Global Greenhouse Gas (GHGs) Emissions have increased by 70 %

ghgs over the past millennium
GHGs over the past millennium
  • Exponential increase over the past 1000 years in CO2, CH4, and N2O is clear
  • CO2 concentrations have increased by about 35% since pre-industrial times
  • Methane concentrations have more than doubled

Source: 2001 IPCC report

estimates of future levels of co 2
Estimates of Future Levels of CO2

The average change in the amount of atmospheric CO2 over the last 600,000 years has been just 22 ppm. It is now uniformly distributed over the earth's surface at a concentration of about 0.033% (or 330 ppm)

(in clean air, it constituted 0.032%).

The atmospheric CO2 levels

Before Industrial Revolution - 280 ppm

1960 - 317 ppm

1999 - 368 ppm

2000 - 369 ppp

Now i.e., 2008 - 380 ppm [It is rising roughly at a rate of

about 1 ppm per year]

It is projected that the global CO2 levels during

2010-2015 - 388-398 ppm {should be 350 ppm by 2050 to

2050-2060 - 463-623 ppm keep Temp. rise to within 20C}

major greenhouse gas emitters
Major greenhouse gas emitters
  • Most greenhouse emissions come from developed countries
  • US and Australia are leaders
  • The US, with 6% of the world’s population, contributes 25% of the total emissions
sources of emissions
Sources of emissions
  • Industry (primarily electric power generation and cement production) is the leader
  • Transportation is second
sources of ghgs
Carbon Emission Sources in US



Power Plant








Source: EPA - U.S. GHGE Inventory 2003

Sources of GHGs

U.S. -- one fourth of the world’s total emissions.

Energy-related activities—85% of total emissions on a carbon equivalent basis in 2001.

Contribution of different sectors in India to climate change?(Sources of Greenhouse Gas emissions in India;India’s Initial National Communication on Climate Change, 2004) (mainly because of Thermal power – electricity production and distribution system)Fossil fuel used in agriculture considered in energy sector
india world s 3 rd biggest co 2 emitter
India World’s 3rd biggest CO2emitter
  • India figured 3rd in the list of biggest CO2 emitter through power generation after China and the USA (according to The Center for Global Development - CGD)
  • The National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) toped the list of companies emitting out the deadly Gas, though NTPC (New Delhi) said that they are the most efficient producers of power using fossil fuel.
  • Out of India’s 63,80,000 tonnes of CO2 emission every year, NTPC alone contributed 18,60,000 t that constituted 30 per cent of the total gas release
  • The NTPC power plant at Talcher (Orissa) emitted the highest quantity of CO2. As many as16 such plants are in CGD’s “red alert” category.
Relative Amounts of CO2 Emission
  • Since 1890 – Industrial Revolution
      • Total CO2 emitted by all nations – 1201 gigatons (with world CO2 emissions being about 26 billion tonnes per annum)
      • The advanced economic nations – 700 gt (58 % of total contribution)
      • The USA alone emitted - 333 gt (28 %)

{Industrialized nations must cut their emission by 25-40 % of their present rates by 2020, ten years from now}

      • All developing nations together - 501 gt (~41%)
      • India’ contribution only - 31 gt (03 % China’s

contribution - 104 gt (09 %)

In other words,

India – 17 % of world’s population emitted 03 % (about 1/5 of that US)

China – 20 % of world’s population emitted 09 %

USA – 4.5 % of world’s population emitted 28 %

Rich nations – 20 % of world’s populat. emitted – 76% global C

relative amounts of co 2 emission
Relative Amounts of CO2 Emission
  • US citizens are biggest CO2 emitters

- an annual average of 19.4 tonnes, while

  • Japanese emit 9.4 tonnes and
  • Indian emit 1.5 tonne
  • Ethiopean just 100 kg
  • Every adult just breathing produces about one kg CO2/day, which works out in average 4.3 tonnes of CO2 each year for every person on the planet
where will future emissions come from
Where will future emissions come from?
  • The US and Western Europe are the current leaders
  • Developing countries (particularly India, China, and Eastern Europe) will contribute a much larger share in the future, because of use of coal
what can happen if the climate changes
  • While no one will be able to escape from the effects of climate change, everybody will be affected; it is the poorer people and developing countries who are most vulnerable to its negative impacts.
  • It will devastate

the world.


i. Human Healtha) Infectious dieses such as malaria; b) Weather related mortality such as heat stressii.EcosystemBiodiversitya).Loss of biodiversity; b). Extinction of species iii.Water resources a). Water supply due to scarcity; b) Water quality c) Competition for water resources iv. Melting of Glaciers and Sea level risev. Agriculturea)ReducedCrop yield; b) increasing demand in irrigation


i. Human Healtha) Infectious dieses such as malaria; b) Weather related mortality such as heat stressii.Agriculturea)ReducedCrop yield; b) increasing demand in irrigationiii.Ecosystem andBiodiversitya).Loss of biodiversity; b).Extinction of speciesiv.Water resources a). Water supply due to scarcity; b) Water quality c) Competition for water resourcesv. Melting of Glaciers and Sea level rise

temperature co 2 rise effects
Temperature - CO2 rise effects
  • When the CO2 was low, the temperature was low and there was an ice age
  • Between 1975 and 1999, the average temperature increased from 13.94 to14.350C, an increase of 0.410C or 0.740F in 24 years
  • The sea level has risenover the last century by 20 – 30 cm (8 – 9 inch). The climate models indicated that it could rise by as much as one meter During this century (It is exaggerated – recent view)
  • Sea level rise could create climate refugees by millions in developing countries – Bangladesh, India, China, Indonesia, Vietnam and Philippines
Future C C impacts: ASIA

Melting of the Himalayan Glacier is projected to increase flooding, rock avalanches from destabilized slopes, and affect water resources within the next two to three decades, followed by decreased river flows as the glaciers recede.Freshwater availability in Central, South, East and Southeast Asia particularly in large river basins is projected to decrease due to climate change, which along with population growth and increasing demand arising from high standards of living, could adversely affect > a billion people by the 2050s.Coastal areas especially heavily-populated mega-delta regions in South, East and Southeast Asia, will be at greatest risk due to increased flooding from the sea

C C IMPACT – Human Health

Scientists warned that at least a dozen “deadly” diseases – cholera, plague, sleeping sickness and eloba (among the dozen) are spreading across the Earth due to C C. These diseases are lethal to both humans and wildlife [the later could give an early warning of the approach of the disease]. The diarrhoeal disease primarily associated with floods and droughts are expected to rise in East, South and Southeast Asia. The relative risks for these conditions is expected to be the largest by 2030 .The excess mortality due to heat stress in India and China is projected to be very high;Europe could face an increase in disease outbreak carried by insects and rodents as climate changes and becomes hotter and wetter (EU health experts)

CC IMPACT – Rise in Temperature on Disease Vectors like mosquitoes

-Rate of development (from egg to adults) will be faster- The densities of vectors will increase- Frequency of feeding and rate of digestion of blood meal will be faster- Frequency of egg laying will increase- Gonotrophic cycle [daily survival and man biting rates]and longevity for sporogony reduced at higher temperature - Death of mosquitoes at 400C

CC IMPACT – Ecosystem and Biodiversity

-About 20 to 30% of animal and plant species assessed so far are likely to be at higher risk of extinction if rise in global average temperature exceeds 1.5 to 2.50C (According to The 4th Assessment Report of IPCC)- The impact is already seen on amphibians and plant life; it is expected to put increasing pressure on mammals too, by destroying their environment Example – Arctic ice sheets for polar bears- The extinct golden toad in Costa Rican jungles & two types of Harlequin frogs were due to C C; raising temp. favoured a dangerous form of skin fungus (infectious diseases) entering their habitats - Up to 50% of Asia’stotal biodiversity is at risk.

C C IMPACT – Water Resources

- Gross per capita water availability in India would decline from ~ 1820 m3/ yr in 2001 to as low as ~1140 m3/yr in 2050- The projected decrease in the winter precipitation over Indian subcontinent would reduce the seasonal precipitation to three months [December to February] implying greater water stress- It leads to incidences of intense rainfall confining over fewer days implying increased frequency of floods during the monsoon; and direct runoff reducing groundwater recharging potential-More people are projected to be flooded every year

CC IMPACT – Draught

- Recent increases in drought are due at least in part to man-made greenhouse gases- Widespread increases in drought are predicted likely to put stress on plants and water resources- General crop growth in India may increase (reason – increased rainfall)- BUT – extra rainfall also means increased flooding- However – some models predict decreased rainfall and therefore more damage to crops

increase in moderate drought over the last 50 years
Increase in moderate drought over the last 50 years
  • Natural greenhouse gas effect known for last 175 years
  • Fourier (1827)- “atmosphere acts like glass of hothouse because it lets thru light rays of the sun but retains the dark rays from the ground”
  • These trace gases are transparent to incoming short wave solar radiation
  • But absorb the outgoing long wave terrestrial radiation and remitting this energy in all directions
  • Thus fundamentally altering the radiation balance of the earth atmosphere system
cc impact glacier melting
Cumulative loss of glacier mass in many regions

During the 20th century, glaciers and ice caps have experienced widespread mass losses and have contributed to sea level rise.

CC IMPACT – Glacier Melting
cc impact glacier melting sea level rise
a) Global mean temperature

b) Global average

sea level

c) Northern hemisphere

Snow cover

CC IMPACT – Glacier Melting & Sea Level Rise
global average sea level rise
Global average sea level rise
  • Global sea level will rise between 0.3 and 0.9 m, depending on scenario
  • Main causes: i. melting polar ice, and ii. thermal expansion of water

Source: IPCC, 2001

the antarctic the greenland ice sheet
The Antarctic & the Greenland Ice Sheet

Thickness: 4700 m max, 2200 m average

Sea level equivalent: ~70 m

Thickness: 3300 m max

Sea level equivalent: 7 m

    • Greenlandshowing slight mass increase
    • Thickening in center
    • Thinning along coasts
    • Antarcticashowing mass loss
    • East Antarctic ice sheet thickening
    • West Antarctic ice sheet thinning
    • All results consistent with greenhouse effect predictions
    • Overall contribution to sea level of all ice sheets: +0.05 ± 0.03 mm/yr
mount kilimanjaro africa s tallest peak
Mount Kilimanjaro – Africa’s tallest peak
  • The snow capping Mount is shrinking rapidly

1970 ->

and could vanish altogether in 20 years, most likely due to global warming

2000 ->

  • The ice sheet that capped the Mount in 1912 was 85% smaller by 2007
  • Since 2000 the existing ice sheet has shrunk by 26%
third pole the himalayas
Third Pole – The Himalayas
  • These are the largest areas covered by glaciers and permafrost outside the polar region, and the area now being called the ‘Third pole’
  • The Himalayas have been warming three times faster the world average & their glaciers are shrinking more rapidly than anywhere else & could disappear by 2035.
  • The Glacier retreat in the Himalayas results from precipitation decrease in combination with temperature increase; and the retreat will increase up if climate warming and drying continues
  • This would affect Himalayan region and alter the lives of half a billion people in Asia and a quarter billion in China (IPCC 2007)
the third pole retreat
The Third Pole retreat
  • Recent studies showed that the mean temp. in the north-western Himalayas rose by 2.20 in the last two decades
  • The ‘Chorabari’ glacier, at about13,000 feet above msl is melting from inside – water gurgles under the ground or a tumbling stone breaking the silence of the mountains, a sign of glacier melting.
  • Chorabari’s snout has retreated 29.5 every year since 2004. It is melting faster than the rate at which snow and ice accumulates.
  • The ‘Parbati’ glacier, another largest in the area have retreated 170 feet a year during 1990s.
  • The snow line is gradually moving higher
CC IMPACT – Glacier Melting & Sea Level rise

- Projected sea level rise could flood the residence of millions of people living in the low lying areas of South, Southeast and East Asia such as in China, Vietnam, Bangladesh, India - Even under the most conservative scenario, sea level will be about 40 cm higher than today by the end of 21st century and projected to increase the annual number of people flooded in coastal population from 13 million to 94 million.

CC IMPACT – Sea Level rise claims islands in Bay of Bengal

New Moore Island (also known as Purbasha Island) located on the confluence of Ichhamati and Rai Mangal rivers near the mouth of the sea remains almost perpetually submerged now, occasionally peeping out during low tides.This startling fact emerged from satellite images in 2009 and reconfirmed by ground truth – from fisherman that ‘there is no trace of the island any more’ (According to Prof. Sugato Hazra, Jadavpur Univ.)The island of Ghoramara, in the Hooghly estuary and Jambudeep near Bay of Bengal are also among other islands that are slowly sinking.T

CC IMPACT – Coral reefs in (GoM)

-The coral reefs, known as rain forests of sea, and included under ‘Schedule I’ of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, at the Gulf of Mannar (GoM) is facing threat due to global warming and consequent climate change, because they are very sensitive- The impact of CC was clearly visible in 1998 in Indian Ocean with many reefs , previously regarded as near pristine, being seriously affected.- Annualbleaching was observed during summer every year since 2005 due elevated sea surface temperature- The maximum affected corals are in the shallow waters ranging from depths of 0.5 to 2 meters, and recorded on Shingle Island (Mandapam coast)- The most affected species are branching corals – Acropora nobilis, A formosa, Montipora foliosa and massive corals – Porites solida, Favia pallida

CC IMPACT – Agriculture

- Indian agriculture is likely to suffer losses due to rise in temperature and erratic weather-Increased droughts and floods are likely to enhance variability in agricultural production- Considerable effects on microbial pathogens and insect pests- Rising temperature posing serious threat to diverse species of crops in India - Substantial decrease in cereal production in Asia. For e.g., 0.5o C rise in winter temperature would reduce wheat yield by 0.45 tonnes per hectare in India. - Greater loss expected in Rabi crops- Increasing sea and water temperatures are likely to effect fish breeding and harvesting;

CC IMPACT – Agriculture –Possible impacton Wheat production in Indias

- Indian agriculture is likely to suffer losses due to increased temperature and erratic weather-Substantial decrease in cereal production potential in Asia. For e.g., 0.5o C rise in winter temperature would reduce wheat yield by 0.45 tones per hectare in India. Greater loss expected in Rabi crops- Increased droughts and floods are likely to increase production variability- Considerable effects on microbial pathogens and insect pests- Increasing sea and water temperatures are likely to effect fish breeding and harvesting; - Coral reefs start declining

united nations framework convention on climate change un fccc 1992
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC – 1992 )
  • Sets an ultimate objective stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHGs) concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system
How to combat CCReduceGreenhouseGasemissionsArticle 2 of the UN Framework Convention on climate change:‘To stabilize greenhouse gas concentrationsat a level which will avoid dangerous climate change, allowing ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, ensuring food production being not threatened and enabling economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner
sequence of events in climate management

Rio Conference: 154 states signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)



Finalisation of the operational details of the Kyoto Protocol at COP 7 in Marrakech Nov. 2001

UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994

IPCC’s 2nd report concluded that “the balance of evidence suggests that there’s a discernible human influence on global climate.”


The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 giving industrialised countries a legally binding commitment to reduce their GHG emissions.



First credits from GHG emission reduction projects

Sequence of Events in Climate Management
kyoto protocol
Kyoto Protocol ?
  • Gives effect to the aims and intents of the UNFCCC to reduce anthropogenic changes in the climate;
  • Adopted under article 17 of UNFCCC
  • Places legally binding commitments on developed countries to bring their collective emissions 5.2% below the 1990 levels during the first commitment period 2008-12
  • Legally binding Protocol setting out:
  • Targets for GHG reductions by individual industrialized countries during “first commitment period”, 2008-2012, totaling 5.2% below their aggregate 1990 emissions; actual percentages vary by Party
  • Clean Development Mechanism, applicable to developing countries, operational since 2000
  • US, Australia have not ratified; EU, China, India, Brazil are Parties (Total 161 Parties)
australian initiative
Australian initiative
  • The Govt. of Australia plans to infuse $100 million to launch a new global carbon capture and storage institute to promote research and investment for the removal of CO2 in a bid to reduce global worming
  • Australian PM recently said carbon capture and storage had the potential to capture nine billion tonnes of carbon by the year 2050.
  • The Australian Govt. wants this global carbon and storage institute to be the global go-to places across board for clean coal technologies and their applications
india s action plan on cc
India’s action plan on CC
  • The National Action Plan of INDIA covers extensive range of measures; focusing on eight missions that will be pursued as key components of the strategy for sustainable development. These include missions on –
  • i. Solar Energy, ii. Enhanced energy efficiency, iii. Sustainable habitats, iv. Conserving water, v. Sustaining the Himalayan ecosystem, vi. Creating ‘Green India’, vii.Sustainable agriculture, and finally viii. establishing a strategic knowledge platform for climate change
  • i. Solar Mission: to significantly increase the share of solar power in the total energy mix, while recognizing the need for the scope of other renewable and non-fossil options such as nuclear energy, wind energy and biomass energy


india s action plan on cc1
India’s action plan on CC
  • ii. Enhanced Energy Efficiency: This national mission has four new initiatives including a market-based mechanism to improve the cost-effectiveness
  • Solid Waste and its Management provides a major challenge, the action plan stresses recycling material and urban waste management, and developing technologies to produce power from waste
  • iii. Sustainable habitat: includes a major research and development program, focusing biochemical conversion, wastewater use, sewage utilization and recycling options where ever possible
  • iv. Conserving water (Water mission): to develop a framework to optimize water use through regulatory mechanisms. PM’s council on CC gave an in principle clearance to this mission on 28-05-2010. Contd…
As a first step, the council has agreed that all the data on water should be put in the public domain to help mobilize better action on water conservation and augmentation.
  • The PM chairing the council meetingrecommended an integrated approach based on river basins and said that political leadership at local body level, state level and civil society organizations need to be involved in activities of the water mission
  • A comrehensive water data base would be put in the public domain and an assessment of CC effect on water would be carried out;
  • convert water conservation into a people’s movement
  • Action would be focused on vulnerable areas where groundwater is over exploited
  • It was also decided that water use efficiency should be raised by 20% through promotion of water positive and water-neutral technologies Contd….
india s action plan on cc2
India’s action plan on CC
  • Also recommended that a structure of incentives should be created for using water in a sustainable manner
  • v. Sustaining the Himalayan ecosystem:to include measures for sustaining and safeguarding the Himalayan glaciers and mountain ecosystem as it is the source of main perennial rivers like Ganga and B’putra
  • vi. Creating a ‘Green India’ – ‘Green India’ mission:
    • aims to double the country’s afforestation and eco-restoration efforts in the next ten years all over India, with primary objective of reducing GHG emissions
    • The Govt. aims to afforest and restore 10 million hectares of land, which is expected to cost Rs 44,000 crore over the next decade
    • Aims to increase the forested areas to 20 million ha by 2020, reducing GHG emission by 6.35% (without the mission, GHG reduction would be 1.5% less). Contd…
india s action plan on cc3
India’s action plan on CC

- Aims to address CC by increasing carbon sinks in

sustainably managed forests and ecosystems

- It also aims to monitor other parameters like ground

cover, soil conditions, erosion and infiltration, runoff,

ground water levels to develop water budget as well as


- Govt. is looking at assigning key roles for local

communities and decentralized governance for its


  • vii. Sustainable agriculture: intends making agriculture more resilient to climate change by identifying and developing new crop varieties that are thermal-resistant and capable of withstanding extreme weather
  • viii. Strategic knowledge platform: to identify challenges and develop responses to CC
Role of Forests in Combating CC: related to ‘Green India’

- By carbon sequestration or expanding the storage of C in forest ecosystems by increasing the area and/or C density of forests, and with reforestation- By conserving existing carbon (c) pools by slowing deforestation or improving forest harvesting practices - forest management - By lengthening C storage in forest ecosystems and in forest products – end use and land use management

Agro-deforestation & C emission

According to a recent study (PNAS, 2010) – ‘Converting a forest or some scrubland to agricultural land causes a lot of natural carbon - C in that ecosystem oxidized, which is lost to the atmosphere’ (Dr. S. Davis, Dept. of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institute, Stanford Univ., California) These indirect impacts from converting forest & sc. land to farm land outweigh the direct GHGs emiss- ions that come from the modern and intensive style of agriculture i.e., the Green Revolution of 1960s Though modern farming uses more energy and agro-chemicals, much less land is cleared for it, leading to the loss of much less oxidized carbon (i.e., 160 GtC (billion tonnes) to 478 GtC matches up to 34 per cent)

- “FOREST” is defined by Land use, land use change & forestry (LULUCF)- as a minimum area of 0.05-1.0 ha (India 0.05 ha) with tree crown cover of more than 10- 30% (India 30%) with trees having the potential to reach 2-5 m (India 5 m) at maturity. - The Forests are both sources and sinks of carbon. Appropriate management practices can enhance their net sink values - “Afforestation” is conversion of land which has not been a forest for at least 50 years through planting, seeding and/or the human induced promotion of natural seed sources, while - “Reforestation” is raising forest on lands not containing forests as on 31.12.1989
Sequestration: Carbon fixing process in trees Source: US EPA http://
forests combat global warming
Forests Combat Global Warming
  • Suck CO2 from the atmosphere and store turning it into carbon in their trunks, branches and leaves as they grow; thus, help curbing global warming; so planting more trees helps counter some of the excess CO2 in the air.
  • The U. N., therefore launched a scheme in 2003 to plant one million trees to help counter deforestation
  • The ‘Future Forests’ group offset CO2 by investing in planting trees mainly in the Third World and has planted about 1,500 hectares of forest since 1999, from Scotland to Mozambique, to absorb 103,000 tonnes of CO2, against world’s annual CO2 emission of about 26 billions tonnes
other phyto combating measures
Other Phyto -Combating Measures


  • Young and old trees have different albedo levels.
  • Young trees actively detonate carbon needed for their growth and development, while old trees absorb either little or no carbon at all.
  • Therefore, consequently new forests must be planted regularly to preserve a stable climate
  • Besides, we must care for old forests, protecting them from wildfire, and implementing well-thought-out tree felling programs
other biological combating measures
Other Biological Combating Measures


  • It was also necessary to intensify biological processes in the world’s oceans – for example
  • Planktons, the perennial inhabitants of the seven seas, require and use huge amounts of CO2 for their growth, and should therefore be promoted and increased en masse with special biotechnologies.
  • Scattering/sprinkling iron filings in the ocean, fertilizing ocean water to nurture and promote carbon gobbling algae that would absorb CO2 from air and transfer it to the ocean depths -Prasanna Kumar et al., (2010)(Current Science, 101-106)
geo engineering combating
“Geo-engineering” Combating

What is Geo-engineering ?

  • The concept of using technology to purposely cool the climate is called “Geo-engineering”
  • Without geo-engineering, it will be not be possible to avoid dangerous climate change
  • “Geo-engineering” describes large scale schemes such as – i. ‘Artificial trees’ to suck atmospheric CO2

ii. enhancing the albedo of marine cloud by seedling them with cloud condensation nucleiiii. fertilizing ocean with iron to promote carbon gobbling algae

iv. sowing the stratosphere with white particles or aerosols to reflect Sun’s rays or

v. whitewashing or painting building roofs to reflect sunlight or

vi. erecting sunshades or reflecting mirrors in space, and many such measures

geo engineering combating1
“Geo-engineering” Combating

‘Geo-engineering’ schemes are Solar Radiation Management (SRM) schemes and basically broadly fall into two categories:

i. One scheme controls how much sunlight or solar energy, to be more precise, reaches the surface of the planet

ii. The other scheme controls how much heat escapes back into the space, which depends on how much CO2 is in

the atmosphere

These can also be broadly categorized in to –

i. Biological and ii. Physico-chemical

geo engineering phyto related combating
“Geo-engineering” Phyto related Combating
  • “Artificial trees” can capture carbon 1,000 times than a real tree – according to Prof. KalusLackner, a physicist, at Columbia University, New York. Hehas been working on the project since 1998
  • The artificial ‘tree’ would be used to trap Carbon that has already been emitted into the air by car gasoline and airplane fuel; capture a ton of CO2 a day from air.
  • The tree is flexible in size and can be placed nearly anywhere. It is a ‘scrubber’ ‘scrubbing’ carbon from air
  • It works by collecting CO2 on a sorbent, cleaning and pressurizing the gas, and releasing it, like the way a sponge collects water, the sorbent collecting CO2.
  • Resin filters on top would capture CO2 from the ambient air


geo engineering combating2
“Geo-engineering” Combating
  • The CO2 is then removed at the bottom using a series of moisture and compression steps – as per Dr Lackner
  • Each synthetic tree would absorb one ton of CO2/day, eliminating an amount of gas equivalent to that produced by 20 cars
  • Although the prospect of this is exciting, manufacturing such artificial tree structures would be expensive as each unit would cost about 30,000 US dollars to make, and would cost about $ 200 a ton CO2 to filter and store.
  • Prof. Lackner says that he will have a prototype with in three years i.e., by 2012.
  • These ‘artificial trees’ could be used in areas where carbon emissions are high
  • A forest of 1,00,000 ‘artificial trees’ could be deployed within 20 years i.e., by 2029 to help soak up world’s carbon emission
geo engineering combating3
“Geo-engineering” Combating
  • A unique scheme to cool the earth with increasing cloud reflectivity over the ocean by spraying them with an ultra-fine saltwater mist from ships (Sci. American)
  • The clouds containing more particles would cast enough sunlight back into space to at least partially offset the warming effects of all the anthropogenic CO2 present in the atmosphere
  • According to Prof. Stephen Salter of engineering design at Univ. Edinburg, the lead researcher, “marine cloud brightening could be done by populating the oceans of the world with up to 1,500 ships of a somewhat exotic design – sometimes known as ‘albedo yachts’


  • Each ship would be remote controlled, wind-powered, and capable of generating (via turbines dragged through the water) the electricity required to create a mist of seawater and loft it 1,000 meters in to the atmosphere
geo engineering combating4
“Geo-engineering” Combating

Orbital Solar-ray Reflectors :

  • Building Orbital Solar-ray Reflectors may eventually prove less expensive than the cost of global warming
  • Mirrors are to be installed at the L1 (La grande) point between earth and sun where gravitational forces balance each other; so that it is easier and cost effective to maintain

Aerosols of Sulphuric acid and other Substances:

  • Spraying these aerosols i.e., of sulphuric acid or sulphate aerosols and other substances into the lower atmosphere at 12-16 km altitudes, as these are good reflectors
  • This will decrease sunshine reaching the Earth’s surface and reduce temperature in the troposphere by the required number of degrees, serving as an instrument of climate change
  • In 1974, Mikhail Budyko, member of Soviet Academy of Sci. and author of Global Warming Theory, proposed the aerosol-spraying method.
geo engineering combating5
“Geo-engineering” Combating
  • It is also well known that after volcanic eruptions, surface temperature is reduced over vast areas because natural aerosols block sun-rays and bring down the temperature
  • Sulphuric acid or sulphate aerosol spraying could be carried out from specially equipped air-crafts.
  • According to YuryIzrael (Director, Inst. of Global Climate & Ecol. at Russian Acad. of Sci.), this is an optimal and inexpensive scenario in case of fast global warming.
  • It could be possible to change the situation in a year or several years at most.
  • Right now, a group of climatologists headed by Dr. Izrael is preparing to experiment to assess the impact of the aerosols on temperature fluctuation in some Russian areas
  • However, the method has some drawbacks – for exam., the stratosphere must be sprayed regularly because the aerosol will eventually drift to the ground and need to be replenished
emission reduction
Emission reduction !!!
  • Few technological solutions, if any
    • No way to remove carbon fast enough (planting trees & crops too slow and requires a lot of water)
    • Nuclear power can help, but needs long time to build plants
    • Scrubbers can be built to remove CO2, but are very expensive
  • Only realistic guaranteed solution is dramatic - rapid lifestyle change
    • Lower, more efficient electric power usage
    • Reduced use of fossil fuels for transportation (goodbye to SUVs and large personal cars)
  • Lifestyle changes are very unpopular, but if not done reductions will be involuntary eventually
MITIGATION MEASURESi. Energy saving and efficiency efforts need to be intensified ii. Non coal forms of energy – Solar, Wind, nuclear, tidal and others iii. Thermally efficient (insulated) housing and use of solar water heaters particularly in hostels and hotels iv. Urban planning that facilitates the use of public transport and clean fuels v. Support for R+D into renewables and clean fuels
Changes in lifestyle and behaviour patterns can contribute to climate change mitigation

IPCC 4th Assessment report:- Education and training programmes can help overcome barriers to the market acceptance of energy efficiency- In industry, management tools that include staff training, reward systems, regular feedback, documentation of existing practices - Reduction of car usage by car-pooling and efficient driving style; also, in relation to urban planning and availability of public transport

Bicycle schemes cut-down CO2

Public bicycle sharing Schemes – i). Barcelona’s  ’Bicing’ program or ii). London’s ’Boris Bikes’ reduced CO2 emission- Bike schemes are becoming increasingly popular in cities around world, with > 360 already running -Though their main aim is usually to ease congestion, around 9,000 tons of CO2 pollution are averted each year by Barcelona's scheme, that was introduced in March 2007- The study suggested to encourage citiesm to change car use by cycling & stimulate the implementation of bike sharing systems

Lifestyle and behaviour patterns contributing to CC mitigation

There are many ways to adapt a ‘green’ way of life:- Using CFL (Compact Fluorescent Light) lights/bulbs at home: are energy efficient bulbs that consume less energy, though these are now expensive. - These bulbs use two-thirds less energy than a regular incandescent bulb and last up to 10 times longer - Each compact bulb keeps half a ton of CO2 out of air over its lifetime (According to The Natural Resource Defence Council, US-based mainstream environmental group) - But, all CFL bulbs need Hg to work and the compact versions contain about 5 mg of Hg (that’s not much - a home thermometer contains a 100 times of that amount, but when thrown along with MSW contaminate food-chain as it is persistent/hazardous; thus, the CFL bulbs after their lifetime, need proper and safe disposal)

Lifestyle and behaviour patterns contributing to CC mitigation

- Eat less/little red meat (RM) as it is more energy intensive to produce; it takes so much of fossil fuel to grow, transport, and process the large amounts of feed that cattle require\- A vegetarian meals one day a week for a year (odwy) reduces emissions equivalent to driving 1,160 miles; an average family that eats chicken, fish or eggs instead of RM just odwy saves the equivalent of GHG emissions produced by driving 760 miles (According to a study Carnegie Mellon Univ., USA) - Covering glass windows with a film to block heat – another easy energy saving solution - “Travel together or car/bike pooling” – saves energy and money, and reduces pollution. - Several websites dedicated for car pooling in Hyderabad have come up – ‘’ - Such energy efficient solutions can be one of the keys to combating CC which can save the Planet

Clean Development Mechanism -CDM

* Objectives are to mitigate climate change effects, assist developed countries to meet their commitments at reduced costs taking advantage of low costs and help developing countries achieve sustainable development* Emission reduction and sink enhancement projects are eligible in forestry - only afforestation and reforestation projects are currently eligible* Only areas not forested as on 31.12.1989 eligible* Emission reduction must be real, measurable and bring long term mitigation* Should be voluntary, approved by host country* Projects must begin from 2000 onwards

Possible CDM projects –
    • Energy efficient buildings are the low hanging fruits for climate change mitigation as per the IPCC (AR4)
      • Energy audits
      • Retrofitting building with energy efficient bulbs/fittings
      • Installing light sensors in rooms, which are not frequently used
    • Conversion of Street lighting to LED
    • Harvesting of methane from landfills to energy
    • Tree planting enhancing carbon sinks
    • Industrial energy efficiency and GHG reduction projects
Industry’s response

Some of the measures that industries can engage into tackling climate change issues are:- Installing energy efficient appliances for lighting, heating and air-conditioning - Educating and training employees on environment-friendly practices - Recycling products - Reviewing and updating global supply chain to improve energy efficiency - Discontinuing high energy/carbon devises or services - Reducing air travel and using vehicles with cleaner technologies

Clean Technology Initiative (CTI)

CTI provides solutions to many of the modern day environmental problems; it aims at producing less toxic emissions and reducing waste:- Industries like ‘Garnier India’, a well known brand in cosmetics industry has implemented a number of green initiatives at the ‘Garnier India’ factory - Recycling of chemical sludge using Vermi bio-filtration to convert hazardous waste into eco-friendly manure - using solar energy to heat water, which saves 125 litres of fuel per day and reduces CO2 emission by 93.7 t/year - Also, now, the GarnierFructis bottles uses less plastic - Agreen chemistry product – ‘Proxylane’, the key ingredient in GarnierAgelift – a powerful anti-aging molecule, is biodegradable, and consume less energy and is non eco-toxic.

Clean Technology Initiative (CTI)

Nippon Paint Group – Nippon Paint (India) Pvt. Ltd received prestigious ‘Frost & Sullivan Green Excellence Award’ for its commitment towards protecting and preserving the beauty and purity of the Environment, with moto ‘Preserve this irreplaceable Planet Earth for future generation’:- It has introduced environment friendly products like Nippon Odourless, weatherbond Solar Reflect and Solar Roof, which lowered the surface temperature and kept the interiors cool comfortable, with ‘Sunblock technology’, thus contributed to preserving the environment through energy savings - These high performance water-based exterior paints protect houses from harsh weather for up to 10 years, and by reflecting heat reduce surface temperature by 50C resulting cooler houses and huge energy saving - The product is odourless during and after painting, and is developed on near Zero VOC platform -

New Job Opportunities

New energy and transport infrastructure investments in developing countries, up-gradation of energy and transport infrastructure in industrialized countries design and equipment manufacturing (Renewable energy, public transport, clean automotive tech)RES Germany: 170.000 jobs operating and maintenance for Renewable energy sources and gas, public transport  urban planning engineers- Energy efficiency improvements in buildingsmanufacturing of energy efficient appliances (for example energy saving CFL bulbs) construction industry energy savings consultants and engineers- Forest-related mitigation options

‘Green’ Career – Green jobs

Going green is the buzzword in the corporate world today and efforts are increasing for tackling CC and conserving the nature, which are generating a lot of jobs:- ‘U. N. E. P.’ sponsored a report titled “Green Jobs”, in which - A green job is defined as a job or work in agriculture, manufacturing, research and development, and administrative and service activities that contribute substantially to preserving or restoring environmental quality - It also includes jobs that help to protect ecosystems and biodiversity, reduce energy, materials and water consumption through high efficiency strategies, de- carbonise the economy, minimize or avoid generation of all forms of waste and pollution Contd...

‘Green’ Career – Green jobs

According to Gaurav Gupta (Director, The Climate Project India) – a green job is one that helps to bring about and maintain a transition to environmentally sustainable forms of production and consumption.- Every job has the potential of becoming a green job if it redefines business as usual to include more sustainable practices. Every year green sector would require > 5000 jobs to meet the requirements - The sector is evolving steadily and job opportunities are aplenty for job seekers with specific capabilities and commitments towards environment. - ‘Green jobs’ need skilled professionals and offer higher salaries. Opportunities are available in research and development divisions of hydropower and wind energy, plantation companies

Green jobs - aplenty

- - Opportunities are coming up from local and global companies in their R & D centres in India - FIELDS WHERE GREEN JOBS ARE AVAILABLE: - Renewable Energy - Biodiversity preservation - Wildlife conservation - Waste Management - Carbon management - Eco consultation - WHAT DESIGNATION? - Consultants; Executives; - Project assistants; - Directors - WHAT COULD BE THE EARNING? - Consultants (entry level): Rs 15,000/month - Project Directors: Rs 1-2 lakhs 100s of 1000s of green jobs would be generated in India

‘Going green’- the Corporate world

The concept of ‘going green’ is gaining immense prominence in the corporate world today- Many Business houses like Cognizant have made it a part of their business strategy. - The onus of steering green policies falls on HR, to reduce their carbon footprint - The concept of ‘going green’ refers to the practices that could lead to more environment- friendly and ecologically responsible decisions - HR has a important role to play in the pursuit of green business, enforce greener working practices and significantly alter the traditional workplace environ. Contd...

‘Going green’- the Corporate world

-The main focus area of Green HR is – to reduce or eliminate environmental waste - Also, play a crucial role towards enhancing productivity with in firms at lower cost- HR leaders can promote green initiatives at a number of levels; for example, HR could work with IT departments to define policies on the correct usage of computer power management systems or promote the importance of turning off computers, printers and light while leaving the office - Also, incorporating green responsibilities directly into job description could provide a two fold benefit – i. Ensuring Green policies are explicitly a part of an employee’s responsibilities, and ii. Providing roots for employee feedback on ideas, which could help improve environmental efficiencies

‘G r e e n I T!...”

- ‘Green IT’ essentially refers to such a system of computing that has minimal impact on the Environment- IT companies consume a large quantity of electricity. Thus, it is important to come up with eco-friendly means of computing - Green IT refers to the study as well as practice of designing, manufacturing, using and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems efficiently with minimal or no impact on the Environment - Educational institutions like GurukrupaEnterprizes have established green technology i.e., the green power UPS, which has increased the efficiency of the computing systems of institutes from 75 per cent to 96 per cent. - Students can go green buying products from environmental responsible companies

ghg mitigation and water quality co benefits
GHG Mitigation and Water Quality Co-benefits

Changes in land use and crop management to sequester carbon and reduce GHG emissions can reduce erosion, nutrient runoff, and pesticide use to the benefit of water quality

*India has 64 Mha of wastelands of which * Gullies/ravines 2055300 ha * Waterlogged/marshy lands 1656800 ha * Saline/alkaline 2047700 ha * Shifting cultivation 3514200 ha * Degraded grazing lands 2597800 ha * Degraded lands under plantation crops 582800 ha * Sands inland/coastal 5002100 ha * Mining/industrial wastelands 125200 ha * Barren rocky patches 6458400 ha * Steep slopes 5578800 ha
greenhouse gases vis a vis cc source stern review
Greenhouse Gases vis-a-vis CC [Source: Stern Review]
  • Natural greenhouse gas effect known for last 175 years
  • Fourier (1827)- “atmosphere acts like glass of hothouse because it lets thru light rays of the sun but retains the dark rays from the ground”
  • These trace gases are transparent to incoming short wave solar radiation
  • But absorb the outgoing long wave terrestrial radiation and remitting this energy in all directions
  • Thus fundamentally altering the radiation balance of the earth atmosphere system
greenhouse effect1
Greenhouse effect
  • Natural greenhouse gas effect known for last 175 years
  • Fourier (1827)- “atmosphere acts like glass of hothouse because it lets thru light rays of the sun but retains the dark rays from the ground”
  • These trace gases are transparent to incoming short wave solar radiation
  • But absorb the outgoing long wave terrestrial radiation and remitting this energy in all directions
  • Thus fundamentally altering the radiation balance of the earth atmosphere system
Different Approaches

* Energy Efficiency … available now at low or no cost !* Natural Gas, Coal … with CO2 capture & storage* Bio-fuels, Renewables … with lower costs and sustainable carbon cycle* Nuclear.… with safe waste management H2 & Fuel Cells … with lower cost*Strong reduction from deforestation are needed… through sustainable management of forests

Using wastelands (source PCRA)

- India has 64 Mha of wastelands of which - gullies/ravines 20,55,300 ha - waterlogged/marshy lands 16,56,800 ha - saline/alkaline 20,47,700 ha - shifting cultivation 35,14,200 ha - degraded grazing lands 25,97,800 ha - degraded lands under plantation crops 582800 ha - sands inland/coastal 5002100 ha - mining/industrial wastelands 125200 ha - barren rocky patches 6458400 ha - steep slopes 5578800 ha


Adopted in December’1997 in COP- 3 of UNFCCCRequirement under ProtocolDeveloped Countries to limit their GHG to individual targets i.e. average of 5.2% reduction in GHG from 1990 levels (Period 2008 – 2012).It covers six main gases – CO2, CH4, N2O, HFC, PFC & SF6


Adopted in December’1997 in COP- 3 of UNFCCCRequirement under ProtocolDeveloped Countries to limit their GHG to individual targets i.e. average of 5.2% reduction in GHG from 1990 levels (Period 2008 – 2012).It covers six main gases – CO2, CH4, N2O, HFC, PFC & SF6

kyoto mechanisms
Provides for 3 co-operative implementation mechanism- Joint implementation

– Annex-I Parties. - Emission Trading

– Annex-I Govt.- Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

– Developed & Developing Countries.

Annex I



Annex I



Annex I

clean development mechanism cdm i
Certified Emission Reduction

CDM Project Sponsoring




Annex I/B

Annex I/B

Developing countries

  • The baseline is the scenario that unfolds the most likely course of action and development in the absence of the CDM project activity
  • In other words, it is an interpretation of “what would have happened otherwise”
  • The baseline is the benchmark against which project CO2 emissions are compared to estimate reductions achieved
  • The baseline scenario is not an emissions factor
basic notion of baselines
CO2 Emissions

Baseline scenario CO2 emissions(that would occur)

Real, measurable and long-term

Additional CO2emissions reduction

CDM project CO2 emissions (observable)



baseline study

Validation of project design, baseline and monitoring plan

Emission baseline

Additional emission


Verification/ Certification ofemission reductions

With project emissions


GHG emissions [t CO2-eq]

Project implementation


baseline and additionality are closely related concepts

A project is considered additional if it is not a likely course of action and thus is different from the baseline scenario.

  • Additionality is the key eligibility criterion in CDM project
    • You must do something that you would not have done without the CDM
  • Two types of additionality
    • Project Additionality
    • Environmental Additionality
project additionality
Is there any barrier to
  • project implementation?
  • Technology barrier, and/or
  • Investment barrier, and/or
  • Any other barrier

Project additional

to legal/regulatory






Are regulations

enforced strictly?


Is project a

common practice?

Project is



Project is

not additional



benefits under cdm to india
  • India – world‘s sixth largest CO2 emitter, although per capita emission is very small (0,2 tons) compared to USA (5,2 tons)
  • India needs energy efficient technologies to reduce GHG emissions
  • CDM could help to overcome the financial constraints associated with the adoption of cleaner technologies
  • Analyses showed that renewable energy technologies are among the low cost options for carbon mitigation
determination of emission reductions
Amount to be certified (CER)




Monitored project


Estimated project







Differential CO2 Emissions abatement costDeveloped CountriesEmission Reduction Cost – Japan - $ 400/Ton of Carbon US – $ 200/Ton of CarbonDeveloping Countries India – $ 25/Ton of Carbon & even less

  • Power Sector and CDM in INDIA: Development of Project Design Document (PDD) for 171MW Hydel Power Project in Uttarakhand, India.
  • ACM0002 – Applies for Baseline and Monitoring Calculation of Grid Connected renewable energy generation.
  • Appendix B to the simplified Modalities and Procedures for Small-Scale CDM project activities (FCCC/CP/2002/7/ADD.3) gives two options for calculating the baseline for a Type I D project:
    • The average of the “approximate operating margin” and the “built margin”
  • The weighted average emissions (in tonCO2equ/kWh) of the current generation mix.
  • Option (b) i.e. “was chosen for the purpose of calculation of the baseline.
study area

Latitude : 30’31.5”

Longitude : 79’43.5”

Project Site : JoshiMath

Tahsil :JoshiMath

District :Chamoli.

State :Uttarakhand, INDIA

Working Place (Office): Engineering Office Complex, NTPC, Noida

contribution of project activity to sustainable development
  • Social well-being
  • Economic well-being
  • Environmental well-being
  • Technological well-being
  • Following the guidelines for determining the additionality there are two options available :
        • Investment Analysis
        • Barrier Analysis

In this case the project’s nature and important barriers it suits for barrier analysis

  • Barriers that would Prevent the implementation of the project are
    • Hydrological Barriers
    • Geological Barriers
    • Barrier related to Tunneling
    • Barrier related to muck disposal
    • Financing Barrier
    • Market and regularity Barrier
formula used for baseline emission reduction calculations
  • BEy = (EGy – EGbaseline) x EFy

Where BE = baseline emission

EGy= CapacityXPLFx 8760

  • Emission reduction (ERy)= BEy-PEy-Ly
  • Where PEy = project emission
  • BEy= baseline emission
  • Ly= leakage in year (y)
EGY= 171- APC(5% of I Cap) X PLF (58.03) X 8760 (Working Hours in a year)

=864920 MWhour

Baseline Emission = (864920MWhour-0) X 0.81 = 700585 tequCO2

Emission Reduction (ERY)= (700585-0-0)/annum

Hence ERY = 700585 tequCO2 /anum

  • The project will displace the fossil fuel based grid electricity with the Hydel-based electricity, contributing to reduction estimated to the tune of 700585 t CO2eq (tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent) per year. With a 7 year renewable crediting period, the project is expected to reduce approximately 14712285 t CO2eq, thereby generating equivalent amount of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) for 21 years.
  • The power generated from HEPP will be supplied to northern Grid and hence would replace the electricity generated from thermal power stations filling into regional grid and also replacing the uses of diesel generator during shortage period.
The technology to be employed by the project will meet each criterion given by INDIAN DNA in the following manner:
    • Social well being
    • Environmental well-being
    • Economic well-being
    • Technological well-being

Since the particular project activity can generates approximately 700585 CERs annually and is having output capacity of 171MW and at the same time is run-of-the river hydropower project, fulfills all the eligibility criteria of CDM Project Activity prescribed by the UNFCCC, it is a potential CDM project activity. As it also lead to sustainable development for our country, hence should be considered for approval by the host country

  • Clear policy and guidance on CDM at the national level
  • Coordination of current capacity building activities
  • Access to data
  • Awareness raising program targeted for small industries/project developers

So to conclude, one thing can be derived from the study that India has a large potential stored for CDM project, only need is to realize the potential and proceed towards Sustainable Development.