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  1. Retrieval Analysis and Methodologies in Atmospheric Limb Sounding Using the GNSS Radio Occultation Technique PhD Defence by Stig Syndergaard

  2. Content of presentation • The GNSS radio occultation principle • Data processing and exemplar results • ----------------------------------------------- • Violation of spherical symmetry assumption • Severe weather gradients • Earth’s oblateness • Ionosphere calibration of data • Conclusion and prospects

  3. The GPS constellation • 24 satellites • Six 12 hour orbits • Altitude: 20200 km • Inclination: 55º • Transmit dual frequency signals

  4. Content of presentation • The GNSS radio occultation principle • Data processing and exemplar results • ----------------------------------------------- • Violation of spherical symmetry assumption • Severe weather gradients • Earth’s oblateness • Ionosphere calibration of data • Conclusion and prospects

  5. Content of presentation • The GNSS radio occultation principle • Data processing and exemplar results • ----------------------------------------------- • Violation of spherical symmetry assumption • Severe weather gradients • Earth’s oblateness • Ionosphere calibration of data • Conclusion and prospects

  6. Content of presentation • The GNSS radio occultation principle • Data processing and exemplar results • ----------------------------------------------- • Violation of spherical symmetry assumption • Severe weather gradients • Earth’s oblateness • Ionosphere calibration of data • Conclusion and prospects

  7. Correcting for the Earth’s oblateness

  8. Earth’s oblateness Before correction After correction

  9. Content of presentation • The GNSS radio occultation principle • Data processing and exemplar results • ----------------------------------------------- • Violation of spherical symmetry assumption • Severe weather gradients • Earth’s oblateness • Ionosphere calibration of data • Conclusion and prospects

  10. Model calculation of retrievals of the temperature in the case of a typical day-time, solar maximum ionosphere

  11. GPS/MET occultation no. 259, day 35, 1997

  12. Content of presentation • The GNSS radio occultation principle • Data processing and exemplar results • ----------------------------------------------- • Violation of spherical symmetry assumption • Severe weather gradients • Earth’s oblateness • Ionosphere calibration of data • Conclusion and prospects

  13. 14 days of GPS/MET occultations