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Warm-up Vocabulary. Caliph – ( pg 197) a successor of Muhammad as spiritual and temporal leader of the Muslims Jihad – ( pg 197) “ struggle, ” “ holy war, ” war to defend the faith; warriors killed in battle go to Paradise. Caliphate the area of land controlled by a Caliph Imam

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warm up vocabulary
Warm-up Vocabulary
  • Caliph – (pg 197)
    • a successor of Muhammad as spiritual and temporal leader of the Muslims
  • Jihad – ( pg 197)
    • “struggle,”“holy war,” war to defend the faith; warriors killed in battle go to Paradise.
  • Caliphate
    • the area of land controlled by a Caliph
  • Imam
    • Highly respected local Islamic worship leader
    • Muslim’s do not have “priests”
spread of islam

Spread of Islam

Umayyads and Abbasids

a quick review
A quick review
  • Mohammed (570-632) founded Islam
    • Based on the messages he heard from Alla
      • Same God as the Jews and Christians
    • Quran – Muslim Holy Book
      • Teaches respect for Jews, Jesus and “the Book” [ the Bible]
    • 5 Pillars
  • Sets up a theocracy - Religion, govt,

& army are combined

  • Followed by the first 4 Caliphs
    • called “Rightly Guided”
    • Strictly adhered to Quran
muslim conquest
Muslim conquest
  • Under the first 4 caliphs, Islam spreads across Persia and into north Africa (632-661)
    • Take Jerusalem in 638
  • Jihad – “struggle,”“holy war,” war to defend the faith.
  • Warriors killed in battle will go to Paradise
  • Arabs are tolerant of other religions
    • But other religions pay high taxes
    • So it is cheaper to convert to Islam
umayyad dynasty 661 750
Umayyad Dynasty (661- 750)
  • 661 – 4th Caliph ((Mohammed's cousin) is assassinated
  • The Umayyad family takes over as caliph
    • Sets up succession by inheritance (dynasty)
    • Moves the capital from Medina, Arabia (the Prophet’s home) to Damascus, Syria
  • Builds the Dome of the Rock Mosque
    • On the site of the Jewish Temple
a split occurs 680
A split occurs (680)
  • Some are not happy about the Umayyad taking over
  • Mohammad's grandson, Hussein, leads a revolt
  • Although the revolt fails, it leads to a split among Muslims
a split occurs 6801
A split occurs (680)



Believe only descendants of Mohammed can lead the Islamic community

Umayyads were usurpers

10% of modern Muslims

Dominant in Iraq and Iran

  • Accept the caliphs chosen by the Islamic community at large.
  • 90% of modern Muslims
umayyad expansion
Umayyad expansion
  • After the Shiite revolt fails, Umayyad continue to expand across North Africa and into Spain
    • Spanish Muslims become known as Moors
  • And east to the Indus river
  • But support for Umayyad family weakens
    • Non-Arabs resent favoritism for Arabs
    • Leaders are becoming corrupt
abbasid dynasty 750 1258
Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258)
  • 750 –the Abbasid family takes over
  • Emphasis is on trade, govt, rather than war
  • Moves the capital to Baghdad
    • Tigris river goes south to the Red Sea
    • It is on the Silk Road.
  • Less prejudice against non-Arabs
    • All Muslims can hold office
    • and marry across racial and national lines




golden age 800 s
Golden Age (800’s )
  • Greek works are translated and saved
  • Muslims are studying science
  • The empire becomes wealthy controlling the silk road
decline and division
Decline and Division
  • But wealth leads to corruption
  • And power leads to in-fighting for control
  • Non-Arabs rise to ruling class
    • Generals, civil servants
  • Local govts start to break away
  • By 973,capital cities in Spain, Egypt and Baghdad all control a part of the divided empire.
islam will continue to spread
Islam will continue to spread
  • The Middle East is united by Muslim conquest, Arabic language, and trade
  • But it does NOT create a common culture.
    • Each nation retains its separate identity.
    • Especially the African Muslims