S. Studies Review. Grade 7 th. Government – Distribution of Power. Unitary Power is in the hands of one person or group National government has more power than local governments Examples: Kenya, Sudan Confederation Local governments have more power than national government
S. Studies Review Grade 7th
Government – Distribution of Power • Unitary • Power is in the hands of one person or group • National government has more power than local governments • Examples: Kenya, Sudan • Confederation • Local governments have more power than national government • Each region governs most of its own affairs • Regions sometimes consider themselves independent • Federal • Power is divided between national and local governments • Local governments control local affairs but also obey the national government • Usually it is the government of large democracies
Citizen Participation • Autocratic • Citizens have little control over the government • Power is in the hands of one person • Example: Sudan • Oligarchic • A small group of people control the government • Most people are not able to affect the government • Example: former South Africa (under racial apartheid) • Democratic • Citizens have more ability to participate than they do in other governments • Government leaders are elected into power, directly or indirectly • Citizens often participate in voting on laws • Examples: Kenya, South Africa
Forms of Democracy • Parliamentary • Citizens vote for members of the legislative branch • The executive leader (or prime minister) is appointed from the legislature • Head of government and head of state are two different people • Example: South Africa • Presidential • Citizens usually vote for members of the executive and legislative branch • A single person is elected as chief executive (or president) • The president is both head of government (chief executive) and head of state
In recent years, the government of Sudan has attempted to improve education in its country. However, women's access to education is still low in Sudan because A. the government has passed laws against educating women. B. there have been very few women who live in Sudan. C. Sudan does not have any government-owned schools. D. education for women has not traditionally been important.
Which country, now a parliamentary government, was once a racial oligarchy ruled by the white citizens? A. Sudan B. Kenya C. South Africa D. Rwanda
Israel's Parliament is called A. the National Assembly. B. the LoyaJirga. C. the Knesset. D. the House of Commons.
Economies • Economic systems dictate what to produce, how to produce it, how much to produce, and for whom to produce it. There are diffeent kinds of economic systems: traditional, command, market, and mixed. The United States works under a mixed economy.
Kinds of Economic Systems • Traditional:In a traditional economy, decisions are controlled by customs, laws, habits, and religious beliefs. Native Americans worked under a traditional economy. • Command:In a command economy, the government is in charge of economic activities. The government decides who will produce certain products and how much will be produced. Some governments even decide who will be allowed to consume a product and how much of the product those people will be allowed to consume. An example of this is a communist government, like Russia used to have. • Market:In a market economy, also known as a free enterprise economy, individuals control the economic activities. They make decisions based on the market they are in and on how much they can buy or sell in a given amount of time. In a market economy, prices are determined by supply and demand. Within the market economy the ideas of supply, demand, and prices are used to determine the answers to the four economic questions of "what to produce," "how to produce," "how much to produce," and "for whom to produce." The system has four characteristics: • Mixed:An economic system where there is a mixture of government and private ownership. Most countries have a mixed economy. The United States has a mixed economy that is mostly capitalist in character. People are free to own their own businesses, but the government intervenes when it needs to (i.e. increasing minimum wage, preventing monopolies, providing welfare).
Economics Free Market • Private ownership of property/resources • Business decisions are driven by the desire to earn a profit • There is a great deal of competition • Consumers have many choices • Examples: Japan, Hong Kong
Economics Command Economy • Central ownership of property/resources • Centrally planned economy • Lack of consumer choice • Examples: China, Cuba, the former Soviet Union, the former East Germany
Economics Mixed Economy • Individuals and businesses as decision makers for the private sector • Government as decision maker for the public sector • A greater government role than in a free market economy • Most common economic system today • Examples: India, the United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, Egypt, Morocco, Nigeria, and South Africa
Economics Traditional Economy • Allocation of resources is based on rituals, habits, or customs • Roles are defined by family • People work together for the common good • Little individual choice • Examples: Early Native Americans
Israel has a high literacy rate and life expectancy for the people who live there. By investing in things like education and health care, Israel helps its economy. This is an example of investing in which of the following? A. natural resources B. entrepreneurship C. capital goods D. human capital
Economic Concepts • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - GDP is the most inclusive measure of an economy's output. It is defined as the market value of the total output of final goods and services produced in one year. • Exchange Rates - Because countries around the world have different currencies, exchange rates are a factor in international trade. An exchange rate is how much one currency is worth when compared to another. Exchange rates are constantly changing in relation to economic conditions in various countries
The countries surrounding the _______ are the richest in oil supplies. A. Nile River B. Mediterranean Sea C. Black Sea D. Persian Gulf
Scarcity Scarcity is the situation where there is a limited amount of goods in a market. As products become scarce, there are less products available to buy. This means if demand stays the same, the price will go up. When products or services are scarce, a lottery may choose who gets the product or service.
Resource Allocation • Resource allocation is the process of setting resources aside for specific projects, in case of a shortage. This can be affected by the economic system that is in place. • The government decides how to use the resources. This is called command allocation. • Market allocation, where the market decides the allocation of the resources.
Four Factors of Production • Land: natural resources and property • Labor: work done by people • Capital: equipment like tools and machinery, and human capital (knowledge) • Entrepreneurship: the managerial skills to organize above factors
Economics • Economic needs are materials that people cannot live without—things such as food, water, and shelter. • Economic wants are anything else we desire, which includes entertainment and other luxuries. • Producersmust meet the needs or wants of consumers if they hope to make a profit.
Cultures of Africa Arabs • came to North Africa in the 7th century AD, and they brought with them the religion of Islam. Arab merchants who controlled trade throughout the region of the Sahara desert spread Islam to other African cultures. Today, most people who live in North Africa are followers of Islam. Sudan, for example, has an overwhelming Islamic population. Ancient Egyptians • have contributed to architecture all over the world through their pyramids. Their use of stone architecture in building the pyramids was advanced for their time and influenced other cultures like the Greeks. The Ashanti people • live in Ghana, near the Gulf of Guinea on Africa's west coast. The Ashanti formed a large empire in the 1670s. They speak the Twi language and are known for their colorful folktales and mythology. One interesting fact among the Ashanti is the close relationship between a King and his nephew. It is believed in this culture that a man shares a special relationship with his mother's brother. Therefore, if a king dies, his nephew (rather than son) will inherit the throne. Bantu • is a term to describe over 400 ethnic groups that live in Africa. These ethnic groups all speak languages from the same language family and share many similar customs. Swahili, which is one of the Bantu languages, is the most widely spoken language on the coast of East Africa.
Which of these cultures has the most widely spoken native African language? A. Ibo B. Ashanti C.Khoikhoi D. Swahili
Cultures of the Middle East • Arabs make up the largest ethnic group in most nations of the Middle East. They have contributed to Middle Eastern cultures in art, fashion, literature, and government involvement. One of their most influential contributions to Middle Eastern culture is the Muslim religion. Even in Israel, where Jews are the dominant ethnic group, Arabs still make the largest ethnic minority. • Afghanistan has three large ethnic groups: the Tajiks, Pashtuns, and Hazaras. Tajiks make up the largest percentage, about half, and descend from some of the oldest inhabitants of the region. Pashtuns make up about 20%, and Hazaras make up about 9%. • Persians make up the ethnic majority in Iran. They influence culture in Iran through their conservative views on religion and politics. They follow a version of Islam (Shi'a) that does not tolerate other religious minorities. • Bedouins are an ethnic group in Saudi Arabia. Their culture has contributed their government practices to Saudi Arabia. In Bedouin culture, the Sheikh would consult the men of the tribe before making decisions. • Berbers are an ethnic group that originated in North Africa and has existed for thousands of years. Islam became the dominant religion of the Berber people after the Islamic invasion of the 7th century. • Kurds are the largest ethnic group in the world who do not have their own nation-state. They live in a region known as Kurdistan, which spans from southeastern Turkey, northern Syria and Iraq, and western Iran. In each of these countries, the Kurds are in the minority and have faced conflict with ethnic groups which are in the majority. • Jewish culture has greatly influenced the culture of Israel since its founding in 1948. There are many ethnic groups within the Jewish culture, including European, Russian, Africa, Asian, and American.
This picture represents the cultural heritage of which African country? A. Ethiopia B. Ghana C. Egypt D. Rwanda
The Sunnah is another source of law in Islam and is based upon A. a new version of the Qur'an as understood in modern times. B. an Arabic version of the Bible different from the Christian Bible. C. the prophet Muhammad's deeds and traditions during his ministry. D. the traditions of prophets such as Noah, Moses, and Abraham.
Shia Muslims believe that, after the death of Mohammed, leadership of the Muslim nation should have been given to A. the person elected by the community. B. the person who defeated the old leader. C. the wisest person in the community. D. a direct descendant of Mohammed.
5 Pillars of Islam The core of Islam is the Five Pillars: • Belief in Allah and his prophet Muhammad • Prayer five times a day • Giving charity to the needy • Fasting, or avoiding eating and drinking during Ramadan • Pilgrimage to Mecca
Environment • Natural resourcesare things found in nature, often used to produce goods and services. Natural resources are either renewable or nonrenewable. • Renewable resources can be replaced, if they are managed properly. • Nonrenewable resources cannot be replaced. An example of a renewable resource is timber, which comes from trees. An example of a nonrenewable resource is oil. • Human resources represent the quantity and quality of human effort towards producing goods. It is also called labor. Improving the education and health of workers is considered investing in human resources. • An entrepreneur is an example of a human resource and is a person who comes up with a new idea and takes a risk to produce it. • Capital resourcesare goods made by people used to produce other goods and services. One example is the machines used in factories.
Which body of water is nearest number 8? A. Jordan River B. Suez Canal C. Euphrates River D. Tigris River
Which number is nearest the Gaza Strip? A. 12 B. 7 C. 8 D. 4
Today, the West Bank has a number of environmental issues and concerns. Pollution from the industries that operate there has destroyed the soil, air, and water quality of the region. Which of these could be done to reduce pollution in the West Bank? A. encourage economic growth B. reduce barriers to international trade C. switch to an industrialized economy D. increase regulations on industry
Frequent droughts, combined with human effects on soil, can cause dry and uninhabitable land to expand. This leads to the destruction of fertile land and native wildlife. The process is known as • acid rain. B. oil spillage. C. desertification. D. herbicide.
This landform is a dry, often sandy region with little rainfall and sparse vegetation.What is it called? A. lake B. mountain C. desert D. coastal plain