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Bacterial Diseases. Pathogenicity. “the state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes and disease”. Staphylococcus. “a genus of gram-negative, nonmotile, opportunistic bacteria which tend to aggregate in irregular, grape-like clusters”. Readings Question #1.

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  • “the state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes and disease”


  • “a genus of gram-negative, nonmotile, opportunistic bacteria which tend to aggregate in irregular, grape-like clusters”

Readings question 1
Readings Question #1

  • Staphylococcus aureus is the most pathogenic of the staphylococci. What are its toxins capable of doing? What enzymes does it produce, and what is their known effect?

Staphylococcal food poisoning
Staphylococcal Food Poisoning

  • caused by ingesting an enterotoxin

  • high resistance to heat, drying and radiation, and high osmotic pressures

  • inhabitant of nasal passages…contaminates the hands…..readily enters food

  • mechanical vectors

  • mayonnaise, cream sauces

Skin and wound infections
Skin and Wound Infections

  • Sty: “infected follicle of an eyelash”

Skin and wound infections cont d
Skin and Wound Infections (cont’d)

  • Pimple: infected hair follicle

  • Abscess: more serious hair follicle infection

    • furuncle/boil: superficial

    • carbuncle: deeper

  • Risk of underlying tissues becoming infected

  • Toxemia: toxins circulate

Toxic shock syndrome
Toxic Shock Syndrome

  • S. aureus growth associated with the use of a new type of highly absorbent vaginal tampon

  • swell with menstrual fluids and adhere to the vagina

  • tears in the vaginal wall


“spherical shaped bacteria occurring in chains”

What are the implications for the embalmer when dealing with saprophytes?

Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumococcus
Streptococcus pneumoniae( pneumococcus)

  • gram-positive ovoid bacterium

  • cell pairs surrounded by capsule

  • common cause of:

    1) lobar pneumonia

    2) meningitis

    3) otitis media

Lobar pneumonia
Lobar Pneumonia

  • Readings question #2:

  • What is lobar pneumonia, and how is it characterized?

  • What are some of the predisposing conditions for this disease?

  • penicillin and fluoroquinolones


  • 70% of the population are healthy carriers

  • Gram-positive encapsulated diplococcus

  • Leading cause of bacterial meningitis

  • Most cases between 1 month and 4 years

  • Broad-spectrum cephalosporins

  • CSF obtained by a spinal tap

  • Vaccine: Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccine

Otitis media
Otitis Media

  • 85% before 3 years of age (Eustachian Tubes)

Streptococcus pyogenes
Streptococcus pyogenes

  • Scarlet Fever: streptococcal pharyngitis

  • Septic Sore Throat: respiratory secretions

    • penicillin

  • Puerperal Sepsis: Childbirth/Childbed Fever

  • Rheumatic Fever: arthritis and fever

    • 50% inflammation of the heart

    • penicillin

    • Syndenham’s chorea


  • obligate anaerobes

  • rod-shaped cells that contain endospores

  • Clostridium botulinum: botulin

Readings question 3
Readings Question 3

  • Clostridium tetani causes what bacterial infection? Describe the characteristics of this microbe. Where is it found? What are its symptoms, and what causes them?

Readings question 4
Readings Question #4

Clostridium perfringens is the causative agent of a postmortem condition known as tissue gas.

List 3 things that may result in this condition in the decedent.

List 7 conditions that predispose the decedent to tissue gas formation.

Food intoxication
Food Intoxication

  • Clostridium perfringens Gastroenteritis: one of the more common forms of food poisoning in the United States

  • improper handling of meat during the slaughtering of animals

  • 2 main causes: 1) keeping foods warm for more than 20 minutes

    2) inadequate refrigeration