What is a Sentence? Review Miller, (2009)
A sentence is • A group of words • Express a complete thought • Have a special order • make sense on their own
A sentence can be: • a statement • Example: My family had a picnic in a forest.
A sentence can be: • a question • Example: Is she a new student? Will Maria come to the party?
A sentence can be: • an exclamation • Example: What a brilliant idea! Look below!
A sentence can be: • A command Example: You have to stop that now! • A wish Example: I wish I had a million dollars. • A request Example: Please don’t write the book.
REMEMBER • A sentence MUST begin with a CAPITAL letter and end with a punctuation mark. • Punctuation Marks are: period (.), exclamation point (!), or question mark (?).
A sentence must have: • Subject (person, place, thing or idea) Example: Maria, UNE, chair, love • Verb (doing word, states action or movement) Example: jump, runs, moves, sleeps
Example: The boy sits in the desk. boy- subject sits- verb
Example: The phone rings. phone- subject rings- verb
Practice Exercises http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/word_order/sentences.htm http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/word_order/sentences3.htm
Remember Letter Word Sentence Paragraph Essay
We will be concentrating on two things: Writing Paragraphs Writing Essays
What is a paragraph? Is a collection of sentences that: Describes Discuss or explains an idea It has a unifying point accompanied by supporting details.
It’s composition: • Topic sentence • Supporting details • Concluding Sentence
It’s composition: • Topic sentence • What you are going to talk about • Tells the reader the main idea The two main elements of the topic sentence are: 1. Main subject 2. Controlling Idea Example: Students at UNE are standing up to their challenges.
Students at UNE are standingup to their challenges. Main Subject Controlling Idea or Idea
Professionals have changed their living styles. Professionals- Main Subject Living styles- Idea
Supporting Details A detail usually exists to support or explain a main idea. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paragraph#Details) It’s a small piece of information within a paragraph. Concluding Sentence Restates the main point
Example Paragraph As a describer of life and manners, he must be allowed to stand perhaps the first of the first rank. His humour, which, as Steele observes, is peculiar to himself, is so happily diffused as to give the grace of novelty to domestic scenes and daily occurrences. He never "o'ersteps the modesty of nature," nor raises merriment or wonder by the violation of truth. His figures neither divert by distortion nor amaze by aggravation. He copies life with so much fidelity that he can be hardly said to invent; yet his exhibitions have an air so much original, that it is difficult to suppose them not merely the product of imagination. (Johnson- Lives of the English Poet, Nov. 03)
Workshop Coherence Exercise A: Learning Under Pressure Organize these five sentences into a coherent paragraph by adding appropriate transitional words and phrases to sentences number 2, 3, and 5. 1. Dr. Edward C. Tolman, after experimenting with rats over a long period of years, found that rats that learned to run a maze under the pressure of hunger took much longer to learn the maze than rats that learned under non-crisis conditions. 2. The learning that did take place was of a narrow type. 3. After learning the "right" route, these rats panicked if one avenue were blocked off. 4. They were not able to survey the field to notice alternative routes. 5.When the rats were permitted to learn under non-crisis conditions, they later performed well in a crisis.
Coherence Exercise A: Learning Under Pressure Dr. Edward C. Tolman, after experimenting with rats over a long period of years, found that rats that learned to run a maze under the pressure of hunger took much longer to learn the maze than rats that learned under non-crisis conditions. Furthermore, the learning that did take place was of a narrow type. That is, after learning the "right" route, these rats panicked if one avenue were blocked off. They were not able to survey the field to notice alternative routes. On the other hand, when the rats were permitted to learn under non-crisis conditions, they later performed well in a crisis.(adapted from How to Study in College, by Walter S. Pauk, Houghton Mifflin, 2000)
Resources • http://www.esl-lab.com/ • http://grammar.about.com/od/developingparagraphs/a/cohrevisepars1.htm