Warm Up • Explain in your own words the happenings on September 11, 2001 • Why did this happen • How does it impact the world around us • How is the US viewed by other countries and why • Why is it important to remember this event every year • What should be the lasting impact of this event
I. Ancient Iran, 1000-500 BCE • A. Geography and Resources • Iran is located around mountains and near the Persian Gulf • The people have little land to retreat to which left Iran open to attack from Central Asia • Iran had limited resources and water was scarce, did have irrigation but was underground • Mineral resources included: copper, tin, iron, gold, silver, and timber
B. Rise of the Persian Empire • Median kingdom destroyed the Assyrian empire in the 7th century BCE • Cyrus the Great overthrew the Median king and built the Persian Empire • Persian empire had 3 founders: Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius I • Cyrus the Great was the first king who united all of Persian empire • Cyrus captured Lydia in 546 BCE and Mesopotamia in 539 BCE • Cambyses defeated Egypt • Darius I extended the empire to the Indus river valley
C. Imperial Organization and Ideology • King Darius divided his empire and had satraps run these provinces • Position of satraps was hereditary • Provinces were required to pay a tribute to the government and the government stored the gold and silver • Provinces were connected by system of well maintained roads that led to the capital city of Susa
Kings were the lawgivers but let the provinces keep their traditions and religions • Persian empire had a religion called Zoroastrianism • Religion states that the universe is dualistic and that good and evil are always struggling • When good prevails the world will be in a pure state and the individuals will be either rewarded or punished for their actions
II. Rise of the Greeks, 1000-500 BCE • A. Geography and Resources • Greece did not have much to farm on but was on the coast and had plentiful coastline for harbors • B. Emergence of the Polis • Mycenaean Greeks were the first true civilization, after their fall a Dark Age impacted Greece • The Phoenicians (trading empire) played an important role in getting Greece out of the Dark Ages and into the Archaic period • Archaic period included urbanization, specialization, and the development of the polis
The Polis (city state) was the Greece urban center and is how Greeks defined themselves • Polis included an agora (public marketplace, meeting place, and religious center), fortified walls to protect, and public buildings to facilitate • There is little distinction between the rich and poor • Greeks created soldiers called hoplites • Hoplites were heavily armored infantry in close formations called a phalanx • Phalanx = a wall of shields created by foot soldiers marching close together in rectangular formation
Hoplite Helmet • Weigh 10 pounds • Restricted Vision and Hearing • Protected from sword and arrow
Hoplites Equipment • the thrusting spear, measuring between 6 to 10 feet in length
For close-in fighting, the hoplite would be armed with a 2-foot long sword held in an underarm wooden scabbard covered with strengthened leather (with bronze fittings) • Only use their sword if spear was broken or gone
The next important element in the hopla was the hoplite shield. Weighing in at some 12 to 15 pounds, the hoplon was a relatively large rounded piece of protection that shielded the user by covering his lower face on down to about mid-knee.
The hoplon was predominantly made of wood with a bronze-constructed facing and furthered strengthened by a leather inner lining. The wearer would slip his forearm into a band on the inside of the shield for maximum fit and grip another available loop band in his hand.
Shield was personal, hoplites would make personal designs on their own shields • One Hoplite is documented as putting a small fly on his shield and saying he would get so close to the enemy that it would look like a lion
Lower torsos were protected in a limited fashion by the use of pteruges, allowing the hoplite full freedom to run at full speed should the situation require it. Molded bronze greaves were allotted to the shins with basic sandals used for footwear
Greeks were very involved in colonization when they could not meet populations needs • Colonization would lead to resources and income • Invention in Lydia: coins begin to circulate in Lydia and now people have a similar form of currency to trade in Greece • Out of Greece comes two forms of government: the oligarchy (Sparta) and democracy (Athens) • Oligarchy is a rule by few, Sparta will have 2 kings • Democracy is a rule by many, Athens will have the people vote on issues • Greek mythology is based on the nature around them and will create ceremonies and sacrifices • Oracles are men who guide the people and give advise from the gods
C. New Intellectual Currents • Concept of Humanism: Greeks begin to focus on the individual and knowledge • Bettering yourself and becoming more knowledgeable • Philosophy and Rationalization will come out of Greece because of this concept of humanism (knowledge for knowledge’s sake) • People begin to explain how the world is created and why it changes • The gods no longer are the answer for changes in the world • Herodotus begins to keep records and explain events (first historian)
Warm Up • First king of united Persia: • Define Satrap: • How did the Persian empire appease their colonies • Persian religion: • 800-480 BCE was the _________ period in Greece • Greek soldiers: • Greek formation and its success: • 2 types of government in Greece: • Humanism:
Warm Up • Describe the Minoans and why people do not regard them as the first “Greeks” • Two books written by Homer: • Explain how the Assyrians used terror in their empire: • Assyrians created what in Nineveh: • Explain the Phoenician empire: • What is the greatest impact of the Phoenician empire? • What colony did the Phoenicians establish in Africa? • Explain the impact of the Jewish Diaspora
D. Athens and Sparta • Foreign Policy: • Sparta—Like most city-states, Sparta needed more land, so they conquered neighboring peoples instead of starting new colonies • The Spartans turned these conquered peoples into helots = state slaves • The helots were given to Spartan citizens to work on farms • Spartans were now free to spend all their time training for war • Helots outnumbered Spartan citizens by 7 to 1 • Foreigners were discouraged from visiting and Spartans were not allowed to travel abroad • Kept out dangerous ideas and discouraged new thoughts
Foreign Policy: • Athens—Economy was based on farming and trade • Encouraged to travel, make connections, and trade • Liked new ideas and cultures • Role of Women: • Sparta—Expected to exercise and raise healthy children • Had greater freedom and power in the household due to separation from their husbands • Could own property
Role of Women: • Athens—Women could not own property and always had a male guardian • Chief obligation was to have children • Were expected to stay at home and out of sight, unless attending religious festivals or funerals
Government: • Sparta—Was an oligarchy headed by two kings who led the army on its campaigns • Ephors – a group of five men elected each year • Responsible for the conduct of all citizens and education • Government: • Athens—Democracy with 3 bodies • Council of 500 (propose law) • Athenian Assembly (voted on proposed laws) • People’s Court (enforce laws)
III. Struggle for Persia and Greece, 546-323 BCE • A. Early Encounters • Greek cities of Anatolia (Ionia) revolt against the Persian rule • King Darius angered about revolt attacks Greece in an attempt to take Athens at the (Battle of Marathon) • Battle of Marathon is a disaster for the Persians and they are forced to retreat • Darius plans another attack but dies before it is carried out • Son is Xerxes who plans to carry out father’s plans
Battle of Marathon • In September of 490 BC a Persian armada of 600 ships disgorged an invasion force of approximately 20,000 infantry and cavalry on Greek soil just north of Athens. Their mission was to crush the Greek states in retaliation for their support of their Ionian cousins who had revolted against Persian rule.
One of the Greek generals - Miltiades - made a passionate plea for boldness and convinced his fellow generals to attack the Persians. Miltiades ordered the Greek hoplites to form a line equal in length to that of the Persians. Then - in an act that his enemy believed to be complete madness - he ordered his Greek warriors to attack the Persian line at a dead run.
In the ensuing melee, the middle of the Greek line weakened and gave way, but the flanks were able to engulf and slaughter the trapped Persians. An estimated 6,400 Persians were slaughtered while only 192 Greeks were killed.
Battle at Marathon – Athenians attack the Persians while they are unloading and the Persians retreat • An Athenian messenger runs 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to announce “nike!!” • Which means victory in Greek • He dies after delivering the message
Battle of Thermopylae: • Greeks do not have enough time to reassemble men to hold of millions of Persians • King Leonidas and 300 men plan to delay Persians to help Greece • Delay for several days until Ephialtes shows way around • Navy of Athens also helps hold Persians