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Chapter 4: Ancient Greece (1900-133 BCE). The First Greek Civilizations. Geography. Had a huge impact on the development of Greek society Greece occupies an area about the size of Louisiana . Geography.

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chapter 4 ancient greece 1900 133 bce

Chapter 4:Ancient Greece (1900-133 BCE)

The First Greek Civilizations

  • Had a huge impact on the development of Greek society
  • Greece occupies an area about the size of Louisiana
  • Mountains isolated Greeks from each other causing communities to develop in their own way
  • These communities became fiercely independent
  • The rivalry between the communities led to warfare that devastated Greek society
  • The sea also influenced the evolution of Greek society
  • They sailed out into the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Black Sea making contact w/ the outside world
  • Later they established colonies that spread Greek civilization throughout the Mediterranean world
rise of the minoans
Rise of the Minoans
  • By 2800 BCE
  • Crete (island)
  • Trade by ship
downfall sudden collapse around 1450 bce
Downfall:sudden collapse around 1450 BCE
  • Great tidal wave caused by volcanic eruption


Most believe the destruction was the result of invasion by mainland Greeks known as the Mycenaeans

mycenaean culture society
Mycenaean Culture & Society
  • Indo- European Group
  • Powerful monarchies
mycenaean culture society1
Mycenaean Culture & Society
  • Monarchy
  • Centralized Government
  • It is likely that the various monarchies developed a loose alliance of independent states
mycenaean culture society2
Mycenaean Culture & Society
  • Great warriors
  • Wall murals often show war and hunting scenes, the natural occupations of a warriors aristocracy
mycenaean culture society3
Mycenaean Culture & Society
  • The most famous of all their supposed mil adventures come to us from the poetry of Homer
    • Iliad
    • Odyssey
  • The Mycenanean states were battling each other
  • Major earthquakes
  • food decline
  • Dark Age because few records of what happen exist.
  • Not until 850 BCE did farming revive
  • At the same time, the basis for a new Greece was forming.
developments of the dark age
Developments of the Dark Age
  • Adopted the Phoenician alphabet
  • New form of writing
  • The Greeks made learning to read and write simpler
  • Near the very end of this age appeared the work of Homer.
the iliad
The Iliad
  • The background is the Trojan War
    • This is the war between Troy and Sparta
    • Trojan horse
    • Trojans lose
  • The Iliad itself is not so much the story of the war but the tale of Achilles and how his anger and pride led to disaster
the odyssey
The Odyssey
  • This work recounts the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy and his ultimate return to his wife
  • Again, this work shows how pride and anger can have negative outcomes but encourages perseverance.
  • The Greeks looked at the Iliad and the Odyssey as true history
  • These masterpieces gave the Greeks an ideal past with a cast of heros
the greek city states

The Greek City-States

Chapter 4: Section 2

the polis
The Polis
  • By 750 BCE, the city-state or “polis” became the focus of Greek life
    • Our word politics is derived from “polis”
    • The polis consisted town along with its surrounding countryside
    • The town served as the center of the polis where people could meet for political, social, and religious activities
the polis1
The Polis


Pol. Rights

  • Above all, a polis was a community of people who shared a common ID and goals


No pol. Rights


the polis layout
The Polis: Layout
  • The gathering place in the polis was usually a hill and at the top of this hill was a fortified area known as the acropolis
    • The acropolis served as a place of refuge during an attack and sometimes came to be the religious center on which temples were built.
  • Btw 750 -550 BCE large #s of Greeks left their homeland
    • Brought on by the need for good farmland and the growth of trade
  • Colonization also led to increased trade and industry
  • This expansion created a new group of wealthy individuals in many of the Greek city-states
    • These men desired political power
  • The creation of the new group of rich men fostered the rise of Tyrants in the 7th and 6th c. BCE
  • Greek tyrants were rulers who seized power by force from the aristocrats
new government
New Government
  • The rule of the tyrants had ended the rule of the aristocrats in many city-states
  • The end of tyranny then allowed many new people to participate in government
    • Democracy
    • Oligarchy
new government1
New Government



  • Government by the people or rule of the many
  • Rule by the few
spartan expansion
Spartan Expansion
  • Sparta was faced w/ the need for more land
  • Instead of colonizing like other Greeks, Spartans conquered neighboring territory
military state
Military State
  • The lives of Spartans were rigidly organized and tightly controlled
  • Men enrolled in the army for regular service at age 20 and lived in barracks until age 30
  • At 30 men were allowed to vote and live at home but they stayed in the army until age 60
  • Oligarchy- rule by few
  • A group of 5 men known as ephors were elected to teach the youth
  • A council of elders composed of the 2 kings and 28 citizens over 60 yrs old decided the issues that would be present to an assembly made up of male citizens
  • Spartans became isolated to rest of Greece
  • They were discouraged from traveling for any reason other than military conquest
  • They were not allowed to study philosophy, literature, or the arts b/c these subjects might encourage new thoughts


Males had political rights

Women & Children had no political rights

Slaves were non-citizens

classical greece
Classical Greece

Chapter 4 Section 3


Challenges on Greece

basic geography of persia
Basic Geography of Persia

Surrounded by mountains and desert

Harsh lands had to find ways to exploit limited water resources

Unlike the ancient river valley civilizations, Persia never had a dense population

first encounter
First Encounter

Darius and Persians landed in Marathon

26 miles from Athens

Athenians defeated a huge Persian army

Messenger ran from Marathon to Athens to give out the news

greece and persia
Greece and Persia

Xerxes took over Persia after the death of Darius

Wanted revenge after Marathon

Planned invasion

Athens prepared with building naval force

greece and persia1
Greece and Persia

Second invasion


180,000 troops

Huge naval braggade


7,ooo troops

300 Spartans

greece and persia2
Greece and Persia

With outmaneuvering, the Greeks out smarted the Persians with a massive defeat

Last defeat was at Plataea

delian league
Delian League

Main purpose was a defense against the Persians

Headquartered in Delos

Athenians controlled the League

Pericles became the powerful leader of Athens

age of pericles
Age of Pericles


Considered a Direct Democracy

All male adults could vote

Meeting held every 10 days outside Acropolis

Lower- class males could hold office

the great peloponnesian war
The Great Peloponnesian War

After war with Persians, Greece became separated:



Two distinct separate societies

Sparta defeated the Athenians

This war divided Greece and they also lost focus on outside invaders

athens economy
Athens Economy

Based mainly on farming and trade

Wines, oils, grapes, grains, and vegetables

Raised sheep and goats

Because of the population of Athens and lack of farmland

Build sea port

Import a large portion of the Athenian diet


Affected every aspect of Greek life

Temples dedicated to the Gods and Goddesses were major buildings in Greece

12 chief gods and goddesses thought to live on Mount Olympus


Main Gods

Zeus- father of the gods

Athena- goddess of wisdom

Apollo- god of sun and poetry

Ares- god of war

After death, Greeks went to an underworld

Hades- god of the underworld

greek drama
Greek Drama

Outdoor theaters

The first Greek plays were Tragedies.

Dealt with universal themes

The plays are based on Good and Evil

greek philosophy
Greek Philosophy

Philosophy- organized system of thought

Early philosophers tried to explain the universe

Sophist- ignore the rhetoric. There is no absolute right or wrong.

Major philosophers:




the threat of macedonia
The Threat of Macedonia

Because of the long last Peloponnesian War, Greece had become tired and vulnerable.

Macedonian to the north had become ready to strike

Phillip II, developed a strong army and defeated all of Greece.

alexander the great
Alexander the Great

Phillip II, had a son named Alexander.

Alexander learned all from his father

Alexander took the throne at the age of 20

He became ready to conquer the world

alexander the great1
Alexander the Great


First the Persians

Macedonians and Greeks attacked the Persians


Capital of Alexandria

Next was India

alexander the great2
Alexander the Great


Military skills

Cultural legacy

Greek Culture spread throughout these areas of conquest

hellenistic kingdom
Hellenistic Kingdom

This era is based on Greek word “to imitate Greeks”

Time of expansion for:

Greek Language

Greek Ideas

New Cities and Military Settlements

hellenistic culture
Hellenistic Culture

Architecture & Sculpture

Greek Architecture- baths, theaters, and temples

Lots of statues of past legends

Movement from idealism to emotional and realistic art

hellenistic culture1
Hellenistic Culture


Advances in the sciences

Sun is center of universe while earth revolves around the sun

Earth was round (estimated 24,675 mile) this number is within 185 mile of actual number

Geometry establishing Pi

Establish theories of gravity based on irrigation

hellenistic culture2
Hellenistic Culture


Athens remained chief center for philosophy