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Thermal and Moisture Protection. Major Topics. Waterproofing Membrane Clay Cementitious Dampproofing Hot-applied Cold-applied. Major Topics con’t. Building Insulation Rigid Mineral Fiber Loose-fill Foamed-in-place Roofing Low slope vs. steep Types of roofing materials.

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major topics
Major Topics
  • Waterproofing
    • Membrane
    • Clay
    • Cementitious
  • Dampproofing
    • Hot-applied
    • Cold-applied
major topics con t
Major Topics con’t
  • Building Insulation
    • Rigid
    • Mineral Fiber
    • Loose-fill
    • Foamed-in-place
  • Roofing
    • Low slope vs. steep
    • Types of roofing materials
major topics con t1
Major Topics con’t
  • Flashing
  • Siding
  • Sealants

As defined in ASTM D1079: “the treatment of a surface or a structure to prevent the passage of water under hydrostatic pressure.”

  • Fluid-applied membranes are usually:
    • Polyurethane
    • Hot Rubberized Asphalt – not as elastic as polyurethane and requires a thicker coat
sheet membranes
Sheet Membranes
  • Butyl synthetic rubber sheet [60 mils thick]
  • Ethylene propylene diene monomers (EPDM) [min. 1/16” thick]
  • Pre-molded bituminous [7 ply]
  • Rubberized asphalt [56 mils]
  • Self-adhesive butyl [60 mils- requires adhesive primer]
  • Usually applied on vertical below-grade surfaces
  • Hot coal-tar pitch or hot asphalt
  • The number of plies, overall thickness, and content vary according to the depth of the hydrostatic head (in ft. – all increase as the depth increases)
clay waterproofing
Clay waterproofing
  • Bentonite clay – when wet, it expands to between 10 to 15 times its dry volume.
  • It is typically mixed with water & sprayed in place (also available in dry sheets between cardboard)
  • Placed below grade to exterior surfaces
cementitious waterproofing
Cementitious Waterproofing
  • Composed of portland cement, aggregate, and an acrylic or plastic admix.
  • It may also contain iron fillers (then known as iron oxide waterproofing)
  • Hydraulic cement – another form of cementitious waterproofing used to seal holes, cracks and open joints (often in free-flowing water)
  • May be hot- or cold- applied
  • Hot consists of an asphalt primer or a coal-tar-based primer
  • Used on the exterior of buildings- not interior because of lingering odor and the problems associated with using “hot” products indoors.
building insulation
Building Insulation
  • Usually added to the roof, walls, and floors of a structure
  • 4 basic classifications are:
    • Rigid board
    • Mineral fiber
    • Loose fill
    • Foamed-in-place
  • Listed according to their R-Values
rigid insulation
Rigid Insulation
  • Usable in all parts of a building –usually in a board form
  • Most are [Resistance/inch]:
    • Polystyrene – sensitive to daylight, give off carbon monoxide while burning
    • Polyurethane [6.25] – may expand after exposure to moisture
    • Polyisocyanurate [7.2]
    • Perlite [2.78] – will not burn, tends to absorb water
    • Phenolic [8.3] –breaks easily, corrodes metal
    • Cellular glass block- [2.5] – breaks easily, deteriorates if exposed to freezing & thawing
    • Organic fiber – roofing systems primary use, wood fibers and water resistant binders
    • Glass fiber
    • Composites – take advantage of high R-values of some materials in combination with the stability of others
mineral fiber insulation
Mineral Fiber Insulation
  • Products made from fibers from rock, slag, or glass
  • Naturally resistant to fire, moisture, and vermin
  • May be semi-rigid boards, batts, or blankets (longer than batts and sold in large rolls). Intended to fit between studs (16” or 24” o.c.)
loose fill insulation
Loose-fill Insulation
  • Comprised of fibers, granules, or chips
  • May be poured or “blown” into attics or wall cavities
  • Common additives may include: adhesives, and chemical treatments to resist fire and vermin
foamed in place insulation
Foamed-in-place Insulation
  • Created by a chemical reaction that expands a mixture of components as much as 30 times
  • Curing typically takes from 24-72 hours, at which time the mixture solidifies into a cellular plastic
  • Care must be taken not to “overfill” a cavity
  • Low slope – in general, these are roofs which slope less than 11/2”/ft.
  • On low slope roofs a system of compatible components is selected to work together to form a waterproof membrane
  • Common systems used are: built-up roof or single-ply
examples of single ply membranes
Examples of Single-Ply Membranes
  • EPDM – factory cured elastomer, bonded to themselves using adhesives
  • CSPE (DuPont Hypalon) –synthetic rubber, may also be liquid
  • CPE – un-reinforced or polyester reinforced sheet material
  • PIB – formulated from isobutylene and other polymers, carbon black, and additional additives
steep roofing
Steep Roofing
  • Slopes exceed 11/2”/ft.
  • Many materials used in modern roofing practices existed centuries ago (clay tiles, and stone)
  • Material used is based on: cost criteria, slope of roof, expected service life, wind resistance, fire resistance, and local climate.
roofing underlayment
Roofing Underlayment
  • Should be asphalt-saturated felt (usually a No. 15 or No. 30 used, may require more than 1 layer-depending on roofing material selected)
  • Applied immediately after the roof sheathing is in place
underlayment performs these functions
Underlayment Performs These Functions:
  • Protects sheathing from moisture absorption
  • Prevents the entrance of wind-driven rain onto sheathing
  • Prevents direct contact between asphalt shingles and resinous areas in wood sheathing (chemically incompatible-may damage shingles)
types of roofing materials
Types of Roofing Materials
  • Asphalt shingles
  • Slate
  • Tile
  • Mineral-Fiber-Cement shingles
  • Wood shingles and shakes
  • Metal
examples of roofing
Examples of Roofing

comparison of types of roofing
Comparison of Types of Roofing

  • Should be installed at all intersections of other roofs, walls, and projections from roof.
  • Flashing should be made of corrosion resistant materials such as:
    • Galvanized or stainless steel (min 26 gauge)
    • Aluminum (0.019 inch min.) –avoid using next to masonry
    • Copper (16 oz.) –if not lead coated…may stain surrounding materials
    • Flexible sheet- made of PVC or modified polymers-used in single-ply & some BUR
typical locations for flashing
Typical Locations for Flashing
  • Valleys –joint formed by 2 sloping roofs
  • Chimney
  • Eaves – ice forming along the eaves
  • Drip edge
  • All roof penetrations
  • The type of wall siding selected depends on cost, expected life service, wind resistance, fire resistance, local climate, and maintenance.
  • Possible materials include:
    • Mineral-Fiber-Cement shingles
    • Wood shingles & shakes
    • Aluminum and Vinyl siding
    • Wood or Hardboard siding
      • Bevel, Tongue & Groove, Lap, Board and Batten
  • Basic types of building sealants include:
    • Elastomeric (rubber like) –polysulfides, silicone, polyurethane [expansion joints]
    • Solvent release curing [small-joints (3/16” or less]
    • Latex emulsion [small interior joints, doors,windows]
    • Tape [glazing, concealing lap joints]
    • Acoustical [seal sound transmission, electrical outlets]
    • Preformed Foam
    • Oil-based caulking compounds [doors, windows, masonry subject to little or no movement]