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Thermal and Moisture Protection

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  1. Thermal and Moisture Protection

  2. Major Topics • Waterproofing • Membrane • Clay • Cementitious • Dampproofing • Hot-applied • Cold-applied

  3. Major Topics con’t • Building Insulation • Rigid • Mineral Fiber • Loose-fill • Foamed-in-place • Roofing • Low slope vs. steep • Types of roofing materials

  4. Major Topics con’t • Flashing • Siding • Sealants

  5. Waterproofing As defined in ASTM D1079: “the treatment of a surface or a structure to prevent the passage of water under hydrostatic pressure.”


  6. Membrane • Fluid-applied membranes are usually: • Polyurethane • Hot Rubberized Asphalt – not as elastic as polyurethane and requires a thicker coat

  7. Sheet Membranes • Butyl synthetic rubber sheet [60 mils thick] • Ethylene propylene diene monomers (EPDM) [min. 1/16” thick] • Pre-molded bituminous [7 ply] • Rubberized asphalt [56 mils] • Self-adhesive butyl [60 mils- requires adhesive primer]

  8. Bituminous • Usually applied on vertical below-grade surfaces • Hot coal-tar pitch or hot asphalt • The number of plies, overall thickness, and content vary according to the depth of the hydrostatic head (in ft. – all increase as the depth increases)

  9. Clay waterproofing • Bentonite clay – when wet, it expands to between 10 to 15 times its dry volume. • It is typically mixed with water & sprayed in place (also available in dry sheets between cardboard) • Placed below grade to exterior surfaces

  10. Cementitious Waterproofing • Composed of portland cement, aggregate, and an acrylic or plastic admix. • It may also contain iron fillers (then known as iron oxide waterproofing) • Hydraulic cement – another form of cementitious waterproofing used to seal holes, cracks and open joints (often in free-flowing water)

  11. Dampproofing • May be hot- or cold- applied • Hot consists of an asphalt primer or a coal-tar-based primer • Used on the exterior of buildings- not interior because of lingering odor and the problems associated with using “hot” products indoors.

  12. Building Insulation • Usually added to the roof, walls, and floors of a structure • 4 basic classifications are: • Rigid board • Mineral fiber • Loose fill • Foamed-in-place • Listed according to their R-Values

  13. Rigid Insulation • Usable in all parts of a building –usually in a board form • Most are [Resistance/inch]: • Polystyrene – sensitive to daylight, give off carbon monoxide while burning • Polyurethane [6.25] – may expand after exposure to moisture • Polyisocyanurate [7.2] • Perlite [2.78] – will not burn, tends to absorb water • Phenolic [8.3] –breaks easily, corrodes metal • Cellular glass block- [2.5] – breaks easily, deteriorates if exposed to freezing & thawing • Organic fiber – roofing systems primary use, wood fibers and water resistant binders • Glass fiber • Composites – take advantage of high R-values of some materials in combination with the stability of others

  14. Mineral Fiber Insulation • Products made from fibers from rock, slag, or glass • Naturally resistant to fire, moisture, and vermin • May be semi-rigid boards, batts, or blankets (longer than batts and sold in large rolls). Intended to fit between studs (16” or 24” o.c.)

  15. Loose-fill Insulation • Comprised of fibers, granules, or chips • May be poured or “blown” into attics or wall cavities • Common additives may include: adhesives, and chemical treatments to resist fire and vermin

  16. Foamed-in-place Insulation • Created by a chemical reaction that expands a mixture of components as much as 30 times • Curing typically takes from 24-72 hours, at which time the mixture solidifies into a cellular plastic • Care must be taken not to “overfill” a cavity

  17. Roofing • Low slope – in general, these are roofs which slope less than 11/2”/ft. • On low slope roofs a system of compatible components is selected to work together to form a waterproof membrane • Common systems used are: built-up roof or single-ply

  18. Examples of Single-Ply Membranes • EPDM – factory cured elastomer, bonded to themselves using adhesives • CSPE (DuPont Hypalon) –synthetic rubber, may also be liquid • CPE – un-reinforced or polyester reinforced sheet material • PIB – formulated from isobutylene and other polymers, carbon black, and additional additives

  19. Example of Built-up Roof

  20. Steep Roofing • Slopes exceed 11/2”/ft. • Many materials used in modern roofing practices existed centuries ago (clay tiles, and stone) • Material used is based on: cost criteria, slope of roof, expected service life, wind resistance, fire resistance, and local climate.

  21. Roofing Material and Slope

  22. Roofing Underlayment • Should be asphalt-saturated felt (usually a No. 15 or No. 30 used, may require more than 1 layer-depending on roofing material selected) • Applied immediately after the roof sheathing is in place

  23. Underlayment Performs These Functions: • Protects sheathing from moisture absorption • Prevents the entrance of wind-driven rain onto sheathing • Prevents direct contact between asphalt shingles and resinous areas in wood sheathing (chemically incompatible-may damage shingles)

  24. Types of Roofing Materials • Asphalt shingles • Slate • Tile • Mineral-Fiber-Cement shingles • Wood shingles and shakes • Metal

  25. Roofing Styles

  26. Examples

  27. Examples

  28. Examples of Roofing http://www.tricityroofing.com/types.html

  29. Comparison of Types of Roofing http://aihomeinspection.com/exterior.html

  30. Flashing • Should be installed at all intersections of other roofs, walls, and projections from roof. • Flashing should be made of corrosion resistant materials such as: • Galvanized or stainless steel (min 26 gauge) • Aluminum (0.019 inch min.) –avoid using next to masonry • Copper (16 oz.) –if not lead coated…may stain surrounding materials • Flexible sheet- made of PVC or modified polymers-used in single-ply & some BUR

  31. Typical Locations for Flashing • Valleys –joint formed by 2 sloping roofs • Chimney • Eaves – ice forming along the eaves • Drip edge • All roof penetrations

  32. Siding • The type of wall siding selected depends on cost, expected life service, wind resistance, fire resistance, local climate, and maintenance. • Possible materials include: • Mineral-Fiber-Cement shingles • Wood shingles & shakes • Aluminum and Vinyl siding • Wood or Hardboard siding • Bevel, Tongue & Groove, Lap, Board and Batten

  33. Sealants • Basic types of building sealants include: • Elastomeric (rubber like) –polysulfides, silicone, polyurethane [expansion joints] • Solvent release curing [small-joints (3/16” or less] • Latex emulsion [small interior joints, doors,windows] • Tape [glazing, concealing lap joints] • Acoustical [seal sound transmission, electrical outlets] • Preformed Foam • Oil-based caulking compounds [doors, windows, masonry subject to little or no movement]