SettlementsOver Time I am going to show you 3 cities in the world and their changes starting from 1900 , 1950 and 2000. The 3 cities are Los Angeles, Tokyo and New York. I picked these 3 cities because over the years these 3 cities have developed rapidly where the changes are obvious. Done by: Dhaanyia
In my presentation I will discuss what caused the change in settlement in the cities of New York, Los Angeles and Tokyo over time. Change in terms of …. • Size • Function • Pattern • Land Use • Type and number of people living there
Overview • Settlement is a place where people live. Settlements have a pattern such as… • Nucleated • Linear • Dispersed • The pattern of settlements depended on many factors and often changed over time. • People usually choose a settlement because of its function and location. • The function of a settlement is the reason why it is built in the first place. Many cities are multi-functional which means they have more then one function. However the function of settlements change over time. Some examples of settlement functions are… • Industrial towns • Market towns • Ports • Resort towns • Initially, when people chose a settlement, jobs and utilities were the key factors • of consideration but over time, cost, security and facilities played important roles as well.
Los Angeles is a city in the Unites States of America located near the Pacific Ocean in the state of California, USA. In 1900 the population in this city was 102,469. In 1900 Los Angeles was a market town because it was an agricultural town producing meat and fruits. It was also a port because it offered modern facilities for ships to import and export. It was an industrial town because it had many manufacturing factories and movie making houses. It also became a resort town called Venice of California offering leisure activities. All this provided jobs which brought immigration and the original city area tripled in size. Zoning laws were made for commercial and residential property. This changed the settlement pattern. In the city housing was nucleated where else the availability of transport enabled people to travel so there were housing in the outer city which were linear and dispersed in pattern. Los Angeles 1900
Los Angeles 1950 In 1950 the population of the city of Los Angeles grew to 1,970,358. After World War Two Los Angeles grew as a center for production as well as industrial and financial center. This attracted more migrants to fill factory jobs as well as in movie making. Suburb communities expanded as construction boomed and houses were built. Los Angeles continued to spread out with the building of freeways, the four level interchange which is first of its kind. Settlements dispersed. During 1950 Los Angeles became a resort town with the opening of a pleasure boat harbor and mountain and recreational areas. Rich people built skyscrapers and Hollywood continued to peak. A new industry began-garment industry, creating more factories. During this time land was also used to build museums, universities and stadiums. A patchwork of settlement was evident because of improper discharge of housing laws.
Los Angeles 2000 In 2000, the population of the city of Los Angeles grew even more to 3,694,820. Los Angeles saw more immigrants that came to fill low wage jobs. There was a demand for residential housing in the city so condo towers, apartments and complexes were built. The gap between the rich and poor widened and this obvious through the settlement type. Immigrants lived according to their ethnicity in a nucleated pattern. City settlement patterns were nuclear where else outer city saw a dispersed pattern. The economy was driven by international trade,entertainment,aerospace,technology,petroleum,fashion,apparel and tourism which meant it still remained a market town, industrial town, port and resort town.
Tokyo 1900 Tokyo is the capital of Japan. It is situated in the island of Honshu. Tokyo’s area is 2,188km2. In 1900 the population in Tokyo was 1,497,000. During the 20th century Tokyo experienced a big city expansion due to rapid population growth so the city expanded and intensified to accommodate the people. During this time Tokyo became a modern city with the introduction of railway, tram and trunk road network. Tokyo started to grow pass the fringe of the city where heavy industrial factories were located. The government introduced a system to plan suburb development and zoning system was introduced. However an earthquake in 1923 destroyed most of the city which made suburbs grow even faster. The pattern of settlement in Tokyo at that time was nucleated in the city center, linear along the railway lines and dispersed in the suburbs. At this time Tokyo was a port town as well as an industrial and market town. People who lived in Tokyo at that time were mainly having low wage jobs or owning small shops or companies.
Tokyo 1950 In 1950 the population of the city of Tokyo had grown approximately to 6,920,000. After World War Two the city was quickly rebuilt. Tokyo expanded because of the railway constructions and developments along railway lines. After the war many people immigrated for jobs and higher education to Tokyo. To accommodate the growing population in the city condominium apartments were built. Public corporation's also developed large scale housing along railway lines in the suburbs. Living in central Tokyo once again became popular with the development of subway. So at this time the settlement in Tokyo continued to be nucleated in the city center and linear along the railways lines. Settlement became dispersed as transportation progressed and cost of city housing increased. Tokyo at this time continued to be an industrial town. It also served as a market town and port town being the gateway to Japan.
Tokyo 2000 In 2000 the population of the city of Tokyo doubled to 12,790,000. In selected areas in the city, larger scale condominiums were built because there was a population decline in the suburbs. Low growth and aging society made people want to move back to central Tokyo. At this time people preferred to live in the city because they had smaller families and didn’t mind smaller homes. People wanted to spend less time traveling to work. So Tokyo became a patchwork of various types settlements because of rapid city growth and poor planning. Illegal settlements in large parks and river banks form a new type of informal settlement in Tokyo. By 2000 Tokyo was a megacity functioning as a major port, industrial and market town.
New York 1900 New York is a city in the Unites States of America located in north east of USA. In 1900 the population in this city was 7,268,894. It was the richest and most populous state in USA at that time. New York during 1900 became an industrial town. The function of an industrial town was to manufacture goods in factories. New York became the main entry point of European immigrants to USA that led to expanded settlements. It was a major port for international trade. The land was mostly used for industry and lot of people went to New York for jobs. The city was also a busy market town. .
New York 1950 In 1950 the population of the city of New York quickly doubled to 14,830,192 and it became a megacity. During this time the city had stopped growing. World War Two had ended the city’s great industrial era. New York instead became a cultural center. It’s economy shifted towards providing services rather than producing goods. The middle class expanded creating suburbs. The availability of automobiles caused dispersion of settlements. Planned communities became the housing choice of the middle-class. At this point New York still attracted immigration and the city became a media capital.
New York 2000 In 2000 the population of the city of New York further grew to 18,976,457. In 2000 New York became an industrial town again. Telecommunications and high technology industries employed many New Yorkers. New York became the center for all things chic and trendy. Immigration to the city rose. The suburbs grew in area. As major immigrant groups continued to grow and the settlements began to expand outward. Immigrants tended to settle in lower income neighborhoods that was marked by high population density. New York City saw more high rise buildings with its success as a megacity and metropolitan.
Conclusion In most cities, economy (function) plays an important role in the change of settlements. Other contributing factors are natural disaster, war and outbreak of disease. Over time, modernization, transportation, city planning, laws and different living requirements emerged as a key factor that determined settlement change. The purpose of studying settlement change over time is to be able to overcome present settlement problems and plan future settlements based on what we have learnt about the contributing factors that have effected settlements so far. One main issue would be how to overcome problems related to population growth and city expansion. City planners must take into account environmental strategies and pay close attention to social organization which are major problems in many cities today.