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Red Cells. Prof. K. Sivapalan. ERYTHROCYTE- RBC. Biconcave disc. 7.2 μ x 2.2 μ No nucleus. PCV – 45, 35 \% Hb\% - 14.5 g/dL. - Males, 13.5 g/dL. - females Red cell count 5,000,000 / mm 3 . (5 x 10 6 ). Hemoglobin. 4 Units- Heme and peptide. 2 x α chains- 141 AA.

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red cells

Red Cells

Prof. K. Sivapalan

erythrocyte rbc
ERYTHROCYTE- RBC
  • Biconcave disc.
  • 7.2 μ x 2.2 μ
  • No nucleus.
  • PCV – 45, 35 %
  • Hb% -
    • 14.5 g/dL. - Males,
    • 13.5 g/dL. - females
  • Red cell count
    • 5,000,000 / mm3. (5 x 106)

Red Cells

hemoglobin
Hemoglobin.
  • 4 Units- Heme and peptide.
  • 2 x α chains- 141 AA.
  • 2 x β chains- 146 AA.
  • Molecular weight- 67,000.
  • Hb A- α2β2.
  • Hb A2- α2δ2. (10 AA differ)
  • Hb F - α2γ2. (37 AA differ)
  • Hb S. (sickle cells)

Red Cells

slide4
Heme.
  • Heme is attached to N terminals in the Peptide Chain.
  • Oxygenation is loose attachment to iron atom.

Red Cells

reaction of heamoglobin
Reaction of Heamoglobin.
  • 1 gram of hemoglobin binds to 1.34 ml of oxygen.
  • Hb4 + 4 O2 = Hb4O8 (Oxygenation)
  • Oxyhemoglobin – red color.
  • Deoxyhemaglobin- blue color - Cyanosis.
  • Carboxy hemoglobin- cherry red.
  • Methemoglobin- brown.

Red Cells

abnormalities of hemoglobin
Abnormalities of hemoglobin.
  • Hemoglobinopathies:

Mutant genes → abnormal polypeptide chains.

  • Thalassemias:

α or β thalassaemia - respective chain is absent or decreased.

Defects in regulatory portion of the genes.

Red Cells

hemopoisis
HEMOPOISIS.
  • Stem cell.
  • Proerythroblast.
    • Basophelic.
  • Early normoblast.
  • Intermediate normoblast.
    • Hemoglobin.
  • Late normoblast.
  • Reticulocyte.
  • Erythrocyte.

Red Cells

hemopoisis1
Hemopoisis.
  • Embryo- yalk sack.
  • Later- liver, spleen and lymph nodes.
  • Adults-redbone marrow.
  • Regulation:
    • Ischemia to kidney tissue → Erythropoitin by Juxta Glomerular Apparatus → increase in hemopoisis.Duration: 4 days.
  • Testesteron stimulates red cell production and result in increased Haemoglobin concentration in adult males.
  • Glucocorticoids also stimulate- polycythaemia in excess secretion.

Red Cells

limitations to hemopoisis
Limitations to Hemopoisis.
  • Protein- severe malnutrition.
  • Iron (Fe): Inclusion in haemoglobin.
    • Difficulty in absorption.
    • Food habits.
    • Loss [females].
  • Cyanocobalamine (Vit. B12) and,

Folic acid:

    • DNA synthesis.

Red Cells

fate of red cells
Fate of red cells.
  • Average life span – 120 days [ of the red cells, 1/120 destroyed daily].
  • Destroyed by the Macropharges in spleen.
    • [Reticulo - Endothelial System]
  • Trabeculae in spleen – 3 μ.
  • Protein → Amino acid pool.
  • Heam →Iron + Porphyrin.
  • Iron → storage + recycled.
  • Porphyrin → Bilirubin – excreted.

Red Cells

bilirubin
Bilirubin
  • Bound to albumin, taken up by the liver. [yellow]
  • Biliverdin – green.
  • Conjugated with glucuronic acid → water soluble and Excreated in bile – green.
  • Intestinal bacteria – stercobilinogen →absorbed – urobilinogen.

Red Cells

investigations on red cell
Investigations on red cell.
  • Osmotic Fragility.
    • Two drops of blood in NaCl solutions with varying osmolality and observe for hemolysis. Spherocytosis- fragility increased.
  • Hemoglobin concentration.
    • Talqivist method.
    • Sahli method (acid haematin formation).
    • Calorimeters.
    • Oxygen content.
  • Pack cell volume.
    • Centrifugation. (buffy coat)
  • Red cell count.
    • Red cell pipette and hemocytometer.

Red Cells

red cell parameters
Red cell parameters.
  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin [MCH]

= Hb in g in 100 ml / No. of RBC in 100 ml.

= 15/5x106 x 105 = 15/5x1011 = 30 x 10-12.

= 27 – 32 Pg.

  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration [MCHC]

= Hb in 100 ml / RBC volume in 100 ml.

= 15/45 x 100 = 32 – 38 %

  • Mean Corpuscular Volume [MCV]

= Volume of RBC in 100 ml / Number of RBC in 100 ml.

= 45 / 5 x 1011= 90 x 10-12= 80 – 94 μ3.

  • Differences between Males and Females.

Red Cells

anemia
Anemia.
  • Aplastic anemia:

Bone marrow not producing red cells. [normocytic normochromic anaemia]

Renal causes- Erythropoitin.

Marrow depression:

Drugs.

Malignancy. [leucaemias]

  • Deficiency anemia:

Iron [Microcytic hypochromic anaemia]

Vitamin B12, Folic acid [Macrocytic hyperchromic anaemia, Megaloblastic anaemia.]

  • Hemolytic anemia:

malaria, hereditary, drugs.

Red Cells

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