the consolidation of latin america 1830 1920 n.
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The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920
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  1. The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920 C25 EQ: What forces drive Latin American independence movements in the early 1800s? How does Latin America evolve (or not evolve) once independent?

  2. Themes • 1. Independence movements were shaped by the European Enlightenment (parallel to revolution movements in Europe) • 2. Colonial governments did not include participatory government (parallel to the American Revolution) • 3. Class and regional interests divided different parts of Latin America (remember the social structure?) • The Creole elites began to question the need to remain subjects of the Spanish crown…people resented the new strict policies imposed by Spain (C19)…early revolutions failed due to power of military or power of the social groups beneath them • 4. Independent Latin American nations will largely escape direct imperial control during the 19C (political, social, religious, etc.), BUT will not escape from indirect imperial control over its economic development

  3. Four Sparks for Revolution • 1. The American Revolution – model for rebellion against the mother nation • 2. The French Revolution – provided base ideology though the radical end was rejected by LA revolutionaries • 3. Haitian Slave Revolt (and Independence movement) – led by Toussaint L’Overture in 1791, led to Haiti becoming only the second new world free country in 1804…became an example to avoid amongst elites in rest of Latin America • 4. Turmoil in Spain and Portugal – the Napoleonic invasions of both countries disrupted political control over the colonies…Creoles declared loyalty to the crown yet managed to gain power of rule over the colonies

  4. Mexico, 1810-1821 • Father Miguel Hidalgo, a mestizo priest, knew the Creoles were plotting…he rallied ALL Mexicans with his speech, the El Grito De Delores on Sept. 16, 1810 (Mexican Independence Day)…he won support of the masses but lost the support of the Creoles, who naturally feared a rising by the peasantry…eventually he was captured and killed and his cause was taken up by a Father Jose Morelos • Rebellion festered in Mexico for a decade until 1820 when Creoles under the direction of Augustin de Iturbide raised his armies and took control of Mexico City • Iturbide was declared emperor, and the conservative Creoles set forth to establish a monarchy, which eventually fell apart by 1824

  5. South America – Bolivar and San Martin • In the viceroyalty of New Granada (Colombia and Venezuela) rose the wealthy Creole officer Simon Bolivar, the George Washington of Latin America…he was trained in the military arts in Spain and used his skills to mobilize support for a movement…between 1817 & 1822, he won battle after battle in Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador and united them as one nation, Gran Colombia…which fell apart in 1830 • Jose San Martin was from Buenos Aries…also trained in the military arts in Spain, he led the portenos (merchant traders of BA) in a push for autonomy from Spanish trade restrictions…after freeing the Viceroyalty of La Plata (many parts of which split into different nations) he crossed the Andes and led independence movements against the Spanish in Chile and Peru • By 1825, all of SPANISH South America was independent

  6. Brazilian “Independence” • Portugal was not going to let Brazil go easily…Brazil was Portugal’s number #1 economic production center’ • Same story as in Spanish LA…the elite want freedom but fear what the minorities and crown would do to them • In 1807, the Napoleonic invasion of Portugal forced the crown to move to Brazil where they established an empire…this helped raised Brazil to equal status with Portugal and gave the elite what they wanted, greater freedom for trade • King Joao (John) VI ruled in Brazil until 1820 when he returned to Portugal and took the crown with him…but he left his son Pedro to rule Brazil…Dom Pedro I rebelled against his father and declared Brazil a free empire in 1822…after a 3 year struggle, Brazil remained a monarchy, free from Portugal and the social structure remained status quo

  7. New Nations, same Old Problems • Religious freedom was expanded by liberals, angering some Conservatives who wished Catholicism to remain state religion in most nations • By 1854, slavery was abolished in every free nation, yet remained in Spanish Caribbean…mita and tribute taxes on local populations only slowly began to vanish…early national Constitutions also did little to guarantee rights to many • Though mestizos rose to some power positions during independence movements, most remained largely outside politics in newly freed Latin American nations • Most new areas were lumped together in loosely held confederations that still were largely and wholly different (United Central Provinces of Central America 1823-1839, Gran Colombia 1819-1830)…regional rivalries amongst Creoles and differences in geography would cause further division and emergence of states in Latin America

  8. The Beginnings of Military Rule • Latin America came to be dominated by caudillos, military rulers who controlled local areas…these caudillos would be called in as arbiters any time civil politicians were divided, usually usurping power for themselves • In short, caudillos were dictators who held little regard for rule of law or democratic rule…some were sympathetic to minority causes (Rafael Carrera in Guatemala) • Another major political issue that led to the rise of caudillos was what type of republican government to establish in a newly formed nation • Centralists (strong central govt.) vs. federalists (regional states connected to a central govt.) • Liberals (freedom/equality for all men, using US and France as models) vs. conservatives (continued status quo, state Catholic church)

  9. Latin America and the World Market • Great Britain led the charge to establish economic relations with Latin American nations by 1) rebuking attempts by Spain to re-colonize freed nations 2) using dominant sea power to “protect” trade to Latin America • The US also felt the need to exert some measure of influence, citing the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, a declaration that no further colonization by Europeans in LA would be allowed…was actually hard to maintain by the “virgin” US • Britain literally replaced Spain as Latin America’s trading “dictator”…Britain regulated all trade with LA nations…Britain became the sole consumer of LA goods in the mid-19th century though some minor interaction occurred between LA, France and the US…all this did was 1) cause Latin America to become dependant on foreign markets and 2) feed economic power to the landed aristocracy (Creoles)

  10. Stagnation and Resurgence • From 1820-1850 the Latin American economy was generally stagnant and suffering from a destroyed/undeveloped infrastructure • By 1850, European demand for cash crops/goods changed this pattern • Some LA countries found niches (guano in Peru) • A major impact on this stagnation was the attempts by liberal reformers to break old colonial ties/ideals…most Latin American nations were not ready to break away form the status quo of large land holdings, control of the Catholic church, and military control (many felt the caudillos provided better system) • Eventually conservatives (landowners) regained power, amazingly with the help of the peasantry • During the latter 19th century, liberals made a comeback…based on the Positivist ideas of French philosophizer Auguste Comte…address societal issues • Liberals were able to join forces with landowners, merchants and investors to tie LA into the industrial movement…HOWEVER, their distrust of their peasant populace impeded efforts (“ancient barbarism”)…the peasantry was taxed monetarily AND via peonage labor (neo feudalism) and lost land and civil rights in the process

  11. Mexico – Instability and Foreign Intervention • Mexico’s brief monarchy had failed…the federal constitution did not address the major problems of 1) unequal land distribution 2) status of natives 3) education issues and 4) poverty among the majority of the population • By 1835, a military caudillo, Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana came to power…he welcomed some foreign intervention…he lost Texas and the Mexican Cession to the US (1848)

  12. Mexico – Instability and Foreign Intervention • Santa Ana’s shortcoming led to the rise of liberal Indian lawyer Benito Juarez in 1854…his La Reforma movement sought to eliminate church and military control in the state to promote economic growth • In 1857 the liberals came to power and wrote a new constitution…the government hoped to sell lands to individuals, mainly Natives…but large landowners bought up even more land, and poor peasants and Natives ended up with less land than they already had • As a result, civil war erupted and the conservatives and caudillos turned to Europe for assistance…the French Empire of Napoleon the III was glad to assist…attracted by dreams of a colonial empire, economic wealth and help to Catholics, he sent troops to Mexico in 1862 AND sent a new ruler (BTW, the US was in the Civil War so we couldn’t stop this) • Maximilian von Hapsburg was sent to become the Emperor of Mexico…he actually attempted to get the support of Juarez and the liberals to no avail…eventually the French withdrew by 1867 leaving Maximilian to be captured and executed by Juarez

  13. Argentina • Quick summary… • There was an economic division between the port city of Buenos Aries and the pampas farming regions…liberals and federals clash once again • The federals gained power under Juan Manuel de Rosas, establishing weak central government that favored regional autonomy PLUS those merchants and ranchers in the immediate Buenos Aries province…Natives in rural areas were shut out…Rosas was a despot…“Death to the savage, filthy Unitarians” • Eventually liberals and other caudillos managed to overthrow Rosas in 1852, but it would not be until 1862 the political stability and reforms (and a little help from foreign investment and European immigration) bring change to Argentina

  14. Brazilian Empire • Quick summary… • So Pedro I now has control of the former Portuguese Brazilian Empire…eventually he is forced out in 1831 and his young son Pedro II takes over in 1840 after rule by a regency…a republican experiment • HOWEVER, once again, liberals and conservatives argued over government…to be a monarchy or not…should government be central or local… • New coffee plantations brought economic wealth…slave trade to Brazil continued until 1850 and slavery was not abolished until 1888…wealth brought more foreign investment and improved infrastructure to Brazil • The monarchy slowly declined all the way until 1889 when a newly formed Republican party staged a coup…HOWEVER, the new government was unable to address social and political issues caused by rapid modernization • Canudos community of fanatics in Brazil’s NE back country

  15. The Great Boom 1880-1920 • Europe’s increasing industrial demands for raw materials fueled growth in LA economies…growth was mainly controlled by urban merchants and the landowners…each group fostered political alliances, all at the expense of the peasant class • Foreign investments were always risky, but European nations and the US made them…HOWEVER, the investment in manufacturing and infrastructure was allowed to remain under foreign control and rarely benefited the LA nation • In Mexico, Porfirio Diaz rose to power on a promise to restrict foreign control of Mexican interests (nationalization), HOWEVER, Diaz still permitted foreign intervention as long as it benefited himself…the peasant class of Mexico eventually rose to rebellion in 1910 • In Argentina, the large influx of foreign born persons brought foreign ideas into the country…socialism emerged with the immigrant working class…political turmoil ensued…eventually the landed aristocracy emerged through caudillo control to stabilize Argentina’s political system

  16. The US Enters Latin America • After the Civil War, the US slowly began to seek imperial interests around the world, and what better place to do so than Latin America • The Spanish American War was the beginning of a series of interventions in Latin America, with Cuba becoming dependant on the US and Puerto Rico becoming a commonwealth territory…Teddy Roosevelt added his corollary to the Monroe Doctrine • We took over the Panama Canal project after backing a revolution against Colombia in 1903 • US interventions continued into the early 1900s…Central America became known as the “Banana Republic”, controlled by US fruit companies…rebellions in Haiti and the Mexican Revolution forced US military action • Latin American began to become increasingly suspicious of American motives

  17. This Week (still broken) • Monday: Change Analysis (together) • Tuesday: Document/Conflict Analysis • Wednesday/Thursday – Test, c23/24/25 (30 MC, BOTH essays)