The Consolidation of Latin America 1830-1920. Chapter 25. Beginnings of Change. Creoles (American born whites) begin to question the policies of Spain and Portugal Majority of population begins to resent new taxes and administrative reforms
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Shared ideals of the revolutionaries: representative government, open careers, freedom of commerce and trade, right to private property, belief in individual as basis of society, idea of sovereign and independent states
Religion: Roman Catholicism had been the only allowed religion under Spain.
Some leaders try to maintain Catholicism as official religion while other try to end exclusion of other faiths
Conservative forces use defense of church as rallying cry
Egalitarian Ideas: (Issues of slavery, Indian tribute, taxes on minorities)
By 1854, slavery abolished every where but Cuba, Puerto Rico, Brazil
Tribute and taxes end slowly because money was needed
Fear that mass population was not ready for self rule and democracy
No vote or public office for women
Creoles don’t trust the popular classes
Mexico, Guatemala, Andean nations- Indian population remains outside of political life
Indians and mixed populations suspicious of political elite from the old aristocracy, new commercial/urban bourgeoisie
Most political leaders agree to republics, but couldn’t agree to what kind.
Centralists: strong, centralized governments with broad powers
Federalists: want tax and commercial policies set by regional governments
Liberals: rights of individual, attack corporate structure of society, decentralized government (US and France)
Conservatives: strong centralized state, maintain aspects of colonial society, structure of corporate groups (American Indians), artisan guilds, institutions such as the church provided an equitable basis of social action and should be recognized in law. Society is not based on open competition, each group had a function and was linked to all others
New attitude and possibilities in the growing world market for Latin America
Liberal ideas focus on positivism (Auguste Comte’s philosophy that stressed observation and a scientific approach to societies problems) for a guiding set of principals and justification for political stability and economic growth.
Science applied to new LA products of copper and rubber
Increasing demand for wheat, sugar, and coffee
Population doubles in 60 years (1820-1880: 43 million)
Economies growth with exports in Columbia, Argentina, Brazil
Foreign entrepreneurs, bankers join with liberals, landowners, merchants to back liberal programs
Leaders believe in progress, education, free competition, but sometimes don’t trust their own people
Problems: lands taken by governments or land owning groups, farmers displaced, church lands seized, flood of immigrants to Argentina and Brazil creates tenancy, peonage, servitude