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The Consolidation of Latin America 1830-1920. Chapter 25. Beginnings of Change. Creoles (American born whites) begin to question the policies of Spain and Portugal Majority of population begins to resent new taxes and administrative reforms

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The Consolidation of Latin America 1830-1920

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beginnings of change
Beginnings of Change
  • Creoles (American born whites) begin to question the policies of Spain and Portugal
  • Majority of population begins to resent new taxes and administrative reforms
  • Early revolutionary attempts fail due to class divisions
    • Failure of upper classes to enlist support of American Indian, mestizo, mulatto population
causes of political change
Causes of Political Change
  • Latin American independence part of the Atlantic Revolutions of the 18th and 19th century.
    • Four key events that shape their ideas:
      • American Revolution
        • Model of how colonies could break from mother country
      • French Revolution
        • Slogan “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity” appeals to some
        • Creoles reject radical phase (regicide, rejection of church authority, social leveling implied by Declaration of the Rights of Man
      • Independence of Haiti
        • Slaves rebel in 1791 under Toussaint L’ Overture (St. Domingue, France)
        • Attempts to subdue the island are defeated, declared independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
        • Latin American elites (Cuba, Puerto Rico) want to avoid similar situations, slaves and people of color see it as symbol of freedom and hope
      • Confusion on Iberian Peninsula
        • 1808: France invades Portugal and Spain (Insurrection and guerilla warfare)
        • Who is the legitimate ruler? Napoleon appoints brother king, central committee or junta central ruled in Spanish kings name (opposition)
        • Caracas, Bogota, Mexico: Local elites pretend to be loyal to King Ferdinand, set up juntas, but rule on their own behalf
spanish american independence struggles
Spanish American Independence Struggles
  • Three Theaters of Independence Movements:
    • Mexico:
    • South America:
    • Caribbean:
  • All former Spanish countries will become republics
  • Brazil will become a monarchy
  • Father Miguel de Hidalgo calls for help from American Indians and mestizos against a conspiracy of leading Creoles.
    • Wins early victories, but loses support of Creoles, captured and executed
  • After 1820, conservative Creoles are more willing to move toward independence by uniting with the remnants of Hidalgo’s insurgent forces
    • Augustine de Iturbide: Creole officer sent to eliminated insurgents, but creates agreement to combine forces with them
      • Occupy Mexico City (September 1821)
      • Proclaimed emperor of Mexico
  • The new Mexico:
    • Born as a monarchy
    • Little attention given to social aspirations and programs of Hidalgo
    • Originally included parts of Central America
    • Mexican empire collapses in 1824, becomes a republic, Central American states split into independent nations
south america
South America
  • Simon Bolivar:
    • 1817-1822: leads revolt against Spain
      • Had great military skill and passion for independence
      • Wins victories in Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador (These areas united as Gran Columbia until broken up over political differences and regional interests in 1830)
    • Rejects attempts to be crowned king, fearful of anarchy
  • Rio de la Plata
    • Portenos (residents of Buenos Aires ) Buenos Aires had become a booming commercial center so they resent Spanish trade restrictions
    • Try autonomy as opposed to independence, but try to keep control over Paraguay
    • 1816: United Provinces of Rio de la Plata proclaims independence, but far from united (Bolivia- Spain, Paraguay- declares independence, Banda Oriental (Uruguay) resists authority of Buenos Aires)
    • Jose de San Martin: emerges as military commander in Buenos Aires
      • Wiling to speak and act for independence
      • Go from Argentina to Chile to help revolutionary forces, slowly wins support among the Creoles in Peru after victory at Ayacucho
  • By 1825, all of Spanish South America had gained political independence (emerge as independent republics with representative governments)
  • Remain loyal to Spain until the end of the 19th century
  • Fear of slave rebellions (Cuba, Puerto Rico)
  • Large Spanish garrisons occupied the area.
brazilian independence
Brazilian Independence
  • Brazil grows in population and economic importance by the end of the 18th century.
    • Demand for sugar, cotton, cacao
    • Results: slave imports increase
    • Planters and merchants want more open trade, fewer taxes, but fear a social uprising/revolution
      • Small movements for independence (Minas Gerias- 1788, Bahia 1798) unsuccessful
  • Changes in Portugal
    • 1807: France invades Portugal, royal family and court flee to Brazil
    • Rio de Janeiro becomes capital of Portuguese empire
      • Brazil now on equal footing with Portugal, royal government set up in the colony, ports of Brazil opened to the world
      • King Dom Joao VI lives and rules in Brazil until 1820
      • Brings royal government closer, reinforced the colonial relationship
      • Becomes an imperial city
      • Changes for Brazil: Printing press, schools, booming commerce, resentment/jealousy of bureaucrats
    • 1820: Napoleon has been defeated in Europe, liberal revolution in Portugal recalls the king and parliament convoked
      • King Joao VI leaves his son Pedro as regent, instructs him that if independence has to come, he should lead the movement
      • September 1822: declares Brazilian independence, becomes Dom Pedro I constitutional emperor of Brazil
      • Fighting against Portuguese troops lasts a year
    • Independence does not upset social organization based on slavery or the political structure
old and new problems
Old and New Problems
  • Shared ideals of the revolutionaries: representative government, open careers, freedom of commerce and trade, right to private property, belief in individual as basis of society, idea of sovereign and independent states
  • Problems:
    • Religion: Roman Catholicism had been the only allowed religion under Spain.
      • Some leaders try to maintain Catholicism as official religion while other try to end exclusion of other faiths
      • Conservative forces use defense of church as rallying cry
    • Egalitarian Ideas: (Issues of slavery, Indian tribute, taxes on minorities)
      • By 1854, slavery abolished every where but Cuba, Puerto Rico, Brazil
      • Tribute and taxes end slowly because money was needed
      • Fear that mass population was not ready for self rule and democracy
    • Voting Rights:
      • Men only
      • Literacy restrictions
      • No vote or public office for women
    • Color Distinctions:
      • Creoles don’t trust the popular classes
      • Mexico, Guatemala, Andean nations- Indian population remains outside of political life
      • Indians and mixed populations suspicious of political elite from the old aristocracy, new commercial/urban bourgeoisie
post revolution political fragmentation
Post Revolution Political Fragmentation
  • Grouped into regional blocks
  • Regional rivalries, economic competition, political divisions prevent unification
    • Mexico: monarchy, then unstable republic until 1860’s (military coups, financial failures, foreign involvement, political turmoil)
    • Central America: breaks away from Mexico, forms union, regional antagonism, resentment of Guatemala led to dissolution of the union in 1838.
    • Caribbean:
      • Cuba and Puerto Rico remain loyal
      • Dominican Republic gains independence in 1844
    • South America:
      • Gran Columbia- Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama ends 1830
      • Rio de la Plata- Argentina hopes to lead, Paraguay maintains autonomy, Uruguay formed from independence movement against neighbors (Argentina and Brazil) 1828
      • Peru and Bolivia attempt union under Mestizo General Andres Santa Cruz
      • Chile follows its own stable political course
  • Reasons for failure of unions
    • Geography, regional interests, political divisions
  • Caudillos: independent leaders who dominate local areas and sometimes seize the national government
    • Created by decades of war in places like Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico
    • Consist of large armies loyal to their regional commanders
    • Became the arbiter of power during times of division and make or unmake governments
  • Caudillos become interested in power for their own sake
    • Could represent different groups (regional elites, Indians, peasants poor) receiving their support
    • Rafael Carrera (Guatemala)- Interest: American Indian
  • Most political leaders agree to republics, but couldn’t agree to what kind.
    • Centralists: strong, centralized governments with broad powers
    • Federalists: want tax and commercial policies set by regional governments
  • Other issues:
    • Liberals: rights of individual, attack corporate structure of society, decentralized government (US and France)
    • Conservatives: strong centralized state, maintain aspects of colonial society, structure of corporate groups (American Indians), artisan guilds, institutions such as the church provided an equitable basis of social action and should be recognized in law. Society is not based on open competition, each group had a function and was linked to all others
  • Political parties form around the liberals and conservatives
  • Leaders come from the landowning, bourgeoisie, so little differentiates them from others
  • Personality could play a major role
    • Juan Manuel de Rosas- Argentina
    • Antonio Lope de Santa Anna- Mexico
  • Result: 50 years of political turmoil and instability
    • Presidents come and go quickly
    • Liberal/Conservative constitutions short lived (New government overturned due to small margin for interpretation)
  • Success stories:
    • Chile establishes system that allow compromise
    • Brazil: maintains compromise
role of the church
Role of the Church
  • Church plays vital role in politics
    • Divides conservatives from secular liberals
    • Mexico: Church in education, economy, politics
    • Liberals try to limit its role in civil life
    • Church fights back with pro clerical supporters and the power of papacy
  • New nations seek diplomatic recognition and security
  • 1820’s seems some plans in Europe to help restore Spain’s colonies
    • Britain opposes since they are main power at sea
    • US creates Monroe Doctrine (1823) stating that any attempt by a European power to colonize in the Americas would be a threat to the US
  • Economic Impact
    • Britain could trade recognition for freedom to trade with new nations
      • Britain sells about 5 million pounds of goods to the LA nations each year
      • Britain in a way replaces Spain as dominant economic force
    • Latin American countries turn to foreign governments and banks for loans
    • Latin America becomes dependant on foreign markets and foreign imports
  • Economy is stagnant from 1820-1850
    • Wars destroy industry
    • Roads are poor
    • Money tied up in land
  • Changes in 1850 with European demand for Latin American products
    • Coffee (Brazil)
    • Beef and hides (Argentina)
    • Minerals and grains (Chile)
    • Fertilizer (Guano) (Profits allow Peru to end tribute system and slavery)
  • Changes from Profits
    • Cities grow and provide good internal markets
    • Steamships and railroads introduced
economic resurgence
Economic Resurgence
  • New attitude and possibilities in the growing world market for Latin America
  • Liberal ideas focus on positivism (Auguste Comte’s philosophy that stressed observation and a scientific approach to societies problems) for a guiding set of principals and justification for political stability and economic growth.
    • Science applied to new LA products of copper and rubber
    • Increasing demand for wheat, sugar, and coffee
    • Population doubles in 60 years (1820-1880: 43 million)
    • Economies growth with exports in Columbia, Argentina, Brazil
    • Foreign entrepreneurs, bankers join with liberals, landowners, merchants to back liberal programs
    • Leaders believe in progress, education, free competition, but sometimes don’t trust their own people
    • Problems: lands taken by governments or land owning groups, farmers displaced, church lands seized, flood of immigrants to Argentina and Brazil creates tenancy, peonage, servitude
mexico instability and foreign intervention
Mexico: Instability and Foreign Intervention
  • 1824, Mexican Constitution
    • Federalist
  • Conservative centralists v. liberal federalists
  • Reforms attempted, 1830s
    • Opposed by Antonio López de Santa Anna, caudillo
  • War with U.S.
  • Benito Juárez
    • Liberal revolt,1854
    • New constitution, 1857
      • Privileges of army and church diminished
      • Lands sold to individuals
  • French in to assist conservatives
    • Maximilian von Habsburg
    • 1867, French withdraw
      • Maximilian executed
  • Juárez in office to 1872
  • United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, 1816
    • Liberals v. federalists
    • Juan Manuel de Rosas, 1831
      • Federalist
      • Overthrown, 1852
    • Reunification, 1862-1890
      • Domingo F. Sarmiento
the brazilian empire
The Brazilian Empire
  • Pedro I
    • 1824, liberal constitution
    • Abdicates, 1831
  • Pedro II
    • Regency, 1831-1840
  • Economic prosperity
    • Coffee export (Fazendas- coffee estates) by 1880- 60 % of exports
    • Slavery intensified
    • Infrastructure improved- transportation, telegraph, banking, middle class
  • Abolition
    • Achieved, 1888
  • Republican Party
    • Formed, 1871
    • Near bloodless coup, 1889
      • Republic founded
societies in search of themselves
Societies in Search of Themselves
  • Cultural Expression After Independence
    • Area open to scientific observers, travelers, artists, etc. who come to see Latin America.
    • Elite follow Europe- fashion
      • 1930s, Romanticism
    • 1870s
      • Realism
      • Positivism
    • Mass culture unchanged
old patterns of gender class and race
Old Patterns of Gender, Class, and Race
  • Little change
  • The Great Boom, 1880-1920
    • European demand
      • Exports
      • Foreign investors
        • Germany, U.S., Britain
mexico and argentina examples of economic transformation
Mexico and Argentina: Examples of Economic Transformation
  • PorfirioDíaz- Mexico
    • 1876, president
    • Foreign capital used for infrastructure
    • Revolt suppressed
    • 1910-1920, Civil War
      • Electoral reform
  • Argentina
    • Meat exports
    • Immigration
      • Distinct culture
    • 1890s
      • Socialist party forms
      • Strikes from 1910
mexico and argentina examples of economic transformation1
Mexico and Argentina: Examples of Economic Transformation
  • Argentina
    • Radical Party
      • Middle class
      • 1916, in power
  • Uncle Sam Goes South
    • Spanish-American War, 1898
    • Cuba
      • American investment
    • Puerto Rico annexed
    • Colombia
      • U.S. backs revolution