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Latin America 1830-1920. By: Bill Rice. From Colonies to Nations. Causes of Political Change. Latin America pushed for independence because of four major global events American Revolution French Revolution

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causes of political change
Causes of Political Change
  • Latin America pushed for independence because of four major global events
  • American Revolution
  • French Revolution
  • Divisions of whites and free people of color over control of St. Domingue (Haiti), France’s sugar colony.
  • Latin American countries pretended to stay loyal to Spanish King setting up their own leadership as a result of France’s occupation of the Iberian Peninsula.
spanish american independence
Spanish American Independence

Three areas of operation involved in struggle.

1. Mexico (Included Central America)

2. South America

3. Caribbean

mexico
Mexico
  • 1824 Mexico became a republic
  • 1838 Central American countries gained independence after a brief attempt to consolidate as one nation, Gran Colombia
south america
South America
  • Argentina and Venezuela were the first to become republics
  • Peru was last to break with Spain
  • 1825 All South American countries had gained their political independence
caribbean
Caribbean
  • Cuba and Puerto Rico stay loyal to Spain, fearful of slave rebellion like they had seen in Haiti until the end of 19th century
  • Other countries gained independence using American and French revolutions and South American Independence as examples
brazilian independence
Brazilian Independence
  • In the late 18th century Brazils economy and population boomed.
  • European demand grew.
  • Increase in slave imports
  • Lower class people wanted fewer taxes and open trade
slide9
New Nations Confront Old and New Problems
  • Social inequalities
  • Political representation
  • The role of the church
  • Regionalism

These problems led to political fragmentation

social inequalities
Social Inequalities
  • Even with an end to slavery, issues of equality, race, and freedoms still existed
political representation
Political Representation
  • Women and many people of color where disenfranchised from voting, property ownership and education
the role of the church
The Role of the Church
  • Shift from church having major role in education, economy, and politics to loss of influence on the people
latin american economies and world markets 1820 1870
Latin American Economies and World Markets,1820-1870
  • The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 – stated that any attempt by a European power to colonize would be considered an unfriendly act by the US
mid century stagnation
Mid Century Stagnation
  • After the wars of independence, Latin American economy was stagnant
  • Wars destroyed industries
  • Roads were poor
  • Money was tied up in land
  • Only Cuba expanded with the sugar economy- Cuba was still a colony of Spain
economic resurgence and liberal politics
Economic Resurgence and Liberal Politics
  • Last quarter of the century there was a rapid expansion due to second industrial revolution.
  • New demands for copper, rubber, wheat, sugar , and coffee
  • Population of L.A. doubled to 43 million between 1820 and 1880
mexico instability and foreign intervention
Mexico: Instability and Foreign Intervention
  • Mexico gained independence, but the Constitution did not address social problems
  • Bad distribution of land
  • Status of Native Americans
  • Problems in education
  • Overwhelming number of poor
mexican reforms
Mexican Reforms
  • Mexico was forced to face the nations internal problems
  • Benito Juarez (a Zapotec Indian) became governor of his state
  • La Reforma a liberal revolt, brought about a new constitution in 1857, limiting church and military control. The result was by 1910 ½ of rural population was landless
  • Civil war erupted
manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny
  • A belief that the US was destined to rule Continent from coast to coast
  • US voted to annex Texas
  • The result was the Mexican American War
  • The US acquired ½ of Mexico’s territory
argentina brazil
Argentina + Brazil
  • Brazil was last to abolish slavery in 1888
  • Europeans emigrated to South America because of the improving economies
societies in search of themselves
Societies in Search of Themselves
  • Social change was slow for American Indians, Blacks, and Women
  • Elites were influenced by fashions and tastes of Europe in clothing, art, and architecture
old patters of gender class and race
Old Patters of Gender, Class, and Race
  • Education for women increased
  • Public education increased
  • Indigenous people continued in labor and to be poor
the great boom 1880 1920
The Great Boom, 1880-1920
  • Large economic growth because of high demand by industrial Europe and US for raw materials food and tropical crops such as coffee
  • Also bananas, rubber, copper, silver, wool, wheat, and beef were in demand as exports
spanish american war
Spanish American War
  • War centered on Cuba and Puerto Rico (Spain’s last colonies in the Americas)
  • Panama Canal opened in 1914 backed by the US
  • Puerto Rico and the Philippines became US territories