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Latin America 1830-1920. By: Bill Rice. From Colonies to Nations. Causes of Political Change. Latin America pushed for independence because of four major global events American Revolution French Revolution

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Causes of Political Change

  • Latin America pushed for independence because of four major global events

  • American Revolution

  • French Revolution

  • Divisions of whites and free people of color over control of St. Domingue (Haiti), France’s sugar colony.

  • Latin American countries pretended to stay loyal to Spanish King setting up their own leadership as a result of France’s occupation of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Spanish American Independence

Three areas of operation involved in struggle.

1. Mexico (Included Central America)

2. South America

3. Caribbean

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  • 1824 Mexico became a republic

  • 1838 Central American countries gained independence after a brief attempt to consolidate as one nation, Gran Colombia

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South America

  • Argentina and Venezuela were the first to become republics

  • Peru was last to break with Spain

  • 1825 All South American countries had gained their political independence

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  • Cuba and Puerto Rico stay loyal to Spain, fearful of slave rebellion like they had seen in Haiti until the end of 19th century

  • Other countries gained independence using American and French revolutions and South American Independence as examples

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Brazilian Independence

  • In the late 18th century Brazils economy and population boomed.

  • European demand grew.

  • Increase in slave imports

  • Lower class people wanted fewer taxes and open trade

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Social Inequalities

  • Even with an end to slavery, issues of equality, race, and freedoms still existed

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Political Representation

  • Women and many people of color where disenfranchised from voting, property ownership and education

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The Role of the Church

  • Shift from church having major role in education, economy, and politics to loss of influence on the people

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Latin American Economies and World Markets,1820-1870

  • The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 – stated that any attempt by a European power to colonize would be considered an unfriendly act by the US

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Mid Century Stagnation

  • After the wars of independence, Latin American economy was stagnant

  • Wars destroyed industries

  • Roads were poor

  • Money was tied up in land

  • Only Cuba expanded with the sugar economy- Cuba was still a colony of Spain

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Economic Resurgence and Liberal Politics

  • Last quarter of the century there was a rapid expansion due to second industrial revolution.

  • New demands for copper, rubber, wheat, sugar , and coffee

  • Population of L.A. doubled to 43 million between 1820 and 1880

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Mexico: Instability and Foreign Intervention

  • Mexico gained independence, but the Constitution did not address social problems

  • Bad distribution of land

  • Status of Native Americans

  • Problems in education

  • Overwhelming number of poor

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Mexican Reforms

  • Mexico was forced to face the nations internal problems

  • Benito Juarez (a Zapotec Indian) became governor of his state

  • La Reforma a liberal revolt, brought about a new constitution in 1857, limiting church and military control. The result was by 1910 ½ of rural population was landless

  • Civil war erupted

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Manifest Destiny

  • A belief that the US was destined to rule Continent from coast to coast

  • US voted to annex Texas

  • The result was the Mexican American War

  • The US acquired ½ of Mexico’s territory

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Argentina + Brazil

  • Brazil was last to abolish slavery in 1888

  • Europeans emigrated to South America because of the improving economies

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Societies in Search of Themselves

  • Social change was slow for American Indians, Blacks, and Women

  • Elites were influenced by fashions and tastes of Europe in clothing, art, and architecture

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Old Patters of Gender, Class, and Race

  • Education for women increased

  • Public education increased

  • Indigenous people continued in labor and to be poor

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The Great Boom, 1880-1920

  • Large economic growth because of high demand by industrial Europe and US for raw materials food and tropical crops such as coffee

  • Also bananas, rubber, copper, silver, wool, wheat, and beef were in demand as exports

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Spanish American War

  • War centered on Cuba and Puerto Rico (Spain’s last colonies in the Americas)

  • Panama Canal opened in 1914 backed by the US

  • Puerto Rico and the Philippines became US territories