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Integrated Urban Modeling System for the Community WRF Model: Current Status and Future Plan. Fei Chen, Mukul Tewari, Miao Shiguang,Yubao Liu, Allen Chan, George Bieberbach, Tom Warner: NCAR Hiroyuki Kusaka: University of Tsukuba, Japan. Outline Overview of an urban modeling framework

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integrated urban modeling system for the community wrf model current status and future plan
Integrated Urban Modeling System for the Community WRF Model: Current Status and Future Plan

Fei Chen, Mukul Tewari, Miao Shiguang,Yubao Liu,

Allen Chan, George Bieberbach, Tom Warner: NCAR

Hiroyuki Kusaka: University of Tsukuba, Japan

Outline

Overview of an urban modeling framework

Examples of applying this modeling system

Future work

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

next generation mesoscale modeling the w eather r esearch and f orecasting model wrf
Next-Generation Mesoscale Modeling:The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF)

Goals: Develop advanced mesoscale forecast and assimilation system and accelerate research advances into operations

  • Collaborative partnership, principally amongNCAR, NOAA, DoD, FAA, AFWA, and universities.
  • WRF development conducted by 15 WRF Working Groups.
    • WRF WG 15: land surface model

Composite NEXRAD Radar

Valid 6/8/03 12Z

4 km WRF BAMEX realtime 12-h forecast Reflectivity

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

integrated wrf urban modeling framework
Integrated WRF Urban Modeling Framework

Surface emission sources

Urbanized high-res land data assimilation system (u-HRLDAS)

Fine-scale atmospheric analysis (FDDA)

urban land use characteristics

WRF/Noah/Urban coupled modeling system

Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models

Transport and Dispersion models

Chemistry models

Urban decision support systems

slide4
Integrate Surface Emission ModelMEGAN: Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (Guenther 2006)
  • Global biogenic emissions model
    • 1 km2 spatial resolution
    • Predicts emissions of > 50 BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds)

Emissioni = AEFi * MEA * WEA * HEA

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

the noah land surface model
The Noah Land Surface Model

Natural surface

  • Noah LSM primarily for NWP, air pollution, and regional hydrology applications
  • Noah in operational models
    • NCEP WRF-NMM (June 2006)
    • AFWA: WRF-ARW (July 2006)
  • Single layer urban-canopy model (UCM, based on Kusaka 2001)
    • 2-D urban geometry
    • Street canyons
    • Shadowing from buildings and reflection of radiation
    • Anthropogenic heating
    • Multi-layer roof, wall and road models

Coupled through ‘urban fraction’

Man-made surface

urbanized high resolution land data assimilation system u hrldas
Urbanized high-resolution land data assimilation system (u-HRLDAS)
  • No routine high-resolution soil and urban observation for initializing WRF/UCM
  • HRLDAS: Using observations to drive LSMs in uncoupled mode
    • long term evolution of multi-layer soil moisture, soil temperature, roof/wall/road temperature, surface fluxes, and runoff

4-km HRLDAS surface soil moisture

in IHOP domain 12 Z May 29 2002.

Chen et al. 2007, J. Appli. Met. Clim.

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

slide7

u-HRLDAS Spin-up

  • Both roof and wall temperatures reach equilibrium within a month; roof temperature has fastest spin-up.
  • However, deep-layer road temperatures still evolve after 30 days.

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

slide8

Example of u-HRLDAS

roof

U-HRLDAS simulated spatial distribution of roof, wall, and road surface temperature valid at 1 January 2006 for Houston

  • Highly dependent on urban types
  • Reflecting strong heterogeneity in urban environments

wall

road

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

application of coupled mm5 wrf urban models

Application of Coupled MM5/WRF Urban Models

Beijing and Tokyo: surface weather, precipitation

Salt Lake City: Diurnal wind direction (URBAN-2000)

Oklahoma City: 2-m temperature (JU-2003)

Hong Kong: 10-day surface wind

Houston: Diurnal cycle of wind profile (TexAQS-2000)

  • Liu, Chen, Warner, and Basara: 2006, J Appli. Meteorol.
  • Lo, Lau, Chen, and Fung, 2007: J. Appli. Meteorol.
  • Lo, Lau, Fung, and Chen, 2006: J Geophys. Res.
  • Zhang, Chen, and Miao 2006: J Geophys. Res., in revision.

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

daunting challenge specify fine scale urban parameters
Daunting Challenge: Specify fine-scale urban parameters
  • Urban fraction
  • building height, ZR
  • roughness for momentum above the urban canopy layer, Z0C
  • roughness for heat above the urban canopy layer Z0HC
  • zero-displacement height above the urban canopy layer, ZDC
  • percentage of urban canopy, PUC
  • sky view factor, SVF
  • building coverage ratio (roof area ratio), R
  • normalized building height, HGT
  • drag coefficient by buildings, CDS
  • buildings volumetric parameter, AS
  • anthropogenic heat, AH
  • heat capacity of the roof, wall, and road
  • heat conductivity of the roof, wall, and road
  • albedo of the roof, wall, and road
  • emissivity of the roof, wall, and road
  • roughness length for momentum of the roof, wall, and road
  • roughness length for heat of the roof, wall, and road

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

gridded ucm parameters
Gridded UCM parameters

Example of defining urban parameters for Beijing

1, ZR

2, Z0C, Z0HC, ZDC

3, FRC_URB

4, R, RW

5, HGT

6, SVF

7, AS

8, AH: AHB and AHC

CDS, BETR, BETB, BETG

CAPR, CAPB, CAPG

AKSR, AKSB, AKSG

ALBR, ALBB, ALBG

EPSR, EPSB, EPSG

Z0R, Z0B, Z0G, Z0HR, Z0HB, Z0HG

UCM parameters assigned from table (urban_param.tbl)

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

slide12

WRF/Noah/UCM Model for Beijing Study)

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

slide13

WRF/Noah/UCM Model for Beijing Study

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

slide14

Sky View Factor (SVF)(45km*36km with 1-km resolution, Min~Max=0.22~1.0 )

2000

1980s

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

ah anthropogenic heat
AH (Anthropogenic heat)

0800 LST Summer

0800 LST Winter

Winter anthropogenic heating is higher than summer

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

diurnal cycle of ah anthropogenic heat
Diurnal Cycle of AH (Anthropogenic heat)

Summer

Winter

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

spatial variance of land surface temperature
Spatial Variance of land surface temperature

MODIS Observations

WRF/Noah/UCM simulations

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

enhance wrf ucm global land use data with high resolution detailed urban data
Enhance WRF/UCM global land-use data with high-resolution detailed urban data

Aggregated to WRF 1-km domain

30-m Landsat land-cover Houston

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

wrf ucm simulated surface wind rotation in houston for 25 august 2000
WRF/UCM simulated surface wind rotation in Houston for 25 August 2000

Sea-breeze (largely southerly flow) developed in opposite direction of background wind:

Leading to a few hours of weak wind and accumulation of pollutants

wrf ucm simulation compared to obs from wind profiler at ellington 25 aug 2000
WRF/UCM simulation compared to obs from wind profiler at Ellington 25 Aug 2000

PBL depth

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

summary
Summary
  • The coupled WRF/Noah/UCM (single-layer) was released in WRF V2.2 (Dec 2006)
    • Documentation: http://rap.ucar.edu/research/land/technology/urban.php
    • Promising to capture fine-scale urban weather phenomena
  • Integrating other components (new land-use data, surface BVOC emission model, u-HRLDAS, 2-way coupling with CFD model) are in progress.
  • High-resolution land-use data and initialization systems (u-HRLDAS and FDDA) are critical to improving WRF, T&D, and air quality models.

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

future work
Future Work
  • Conduct uncoupled simulations with different urban models now implemented in WRF
  • Improve land use data sets
  • Test and evaluate new model physics in WRF
  • Collaborating with
    • Bob Bornstein: SJSU
    • Jason Ching: US EPA
    • Bill Coirier: CFDRC
    • Sue Grimmond: King’s College, UK.
    • Steve Burian: U. Utah

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

future work improve land use data from global to urban scales modis vs avhrr
Future WorkImprove land-use data from global to urban scalesMODIS vs AVHRR

Red: urban areas in the Pearl River Delta, China

1993 USGS data

2001 MODIS data

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

slide24

(Lowest sigma level)

The addition of urban treatment is able to capture

the land sea breeze circulation enhanced by urban.

Lo, Lau, Chen, and Fung, 2007, JAMC.

Magenta :Observation

Blue: LSM forecast

Yellow: MM5 forecast

slide25

Impacts of land-use change on transport and dispersion

Simulated by HPAC (primarily through SCIPUFF)

Cultivated

Nighttime surface dosage

Urban

More Dispersion

Less Advection

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

future model development
Future Model Development
  • Test a new k- turbulence parameterization in WRF/UCM with emphasis on stable boundary layer processes (Freedman and Jacobson 2003).
  • Enhance and test the multi-layer urban canopy model (Martilli-Dupont-EPA, Dupont et al. 2004).

Workshop on Model Urbanization Strategy, Exeter, UK. 3-4 May 2007

two way coupling wrf cfd through mcel model coupling environmental library
Two-way coupling WRF/CFD through MCEL (Model Coupling Environmental Library)

CFD-Urban:

Hi-Res Urban Model

WRF-Noah/UCM coupled model forecast

Coupling

Down-Scale

Up- Scale

CFD-Urban: T&D